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===SUEWS v2017b=== <!--T:1-->
 
The current version of SUEWS is v2017b. The software can be downloaded by completing the form [http://micromet.reading.ac.uk/software/ here].
 
 
Ward HC, L Järvi, T Sun, S Onomura, F Lindberg, F Olofson, A Gabey, CSB Grimmond (2017) SUEWS Manual V2017b, http://urban-climate.net/umep/SUEWS Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK
 
  
This wiki page (http://urban-climate.net/umep/SUEWS) is regularly updated with new developments. For what's new in this version, see [[#Version History|Version History]].
 
 
The '''latest formal''' release of SUEWS is '''v2017b''' (released 1 August 2017).
 
 
The manual for SUEWS v2017b can be accessed [[:File:SUEWS_V2017b_Manual.pdf|here]] and should be referenced as follows:
 
 
Ward HC, L Järvi, T Sun, S Onomura, F Lindberg, F Olofson, A Gabey, CSB Grimmond (2017) SUEWS Manual V2017b, http://urban-climate.net/umep/SUEWS Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK
 
 
To download the latest version of SUEWS please complete the [https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1AiPC9RVoQ_T_eaVnkuhI1UqmO8sWWMMRD9Yqeq98sfo/viewform?formkey=dExvc3V1RDBqWmlIcURfLW5VOGtvQ0E6MQ&ifq online form].
 
 
Please refer to [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.5200/full Ward et al. (2017)] for further details v2017a:
 
 
Ward HC, Yin San Tan, AM Gabey, S Kotthaus, WTJ Morrison, CSB Grimmond Impact of temporal resolution of precipitation forcing data on modelled urban-atmosphere exchanges and surface conditions International Journal of Climatology doi: 10.1002/joc.5200
 
 
See other publications in the next section (if you have papers that could be added, please send them through)
 
 
===Recent publications ===
 
*If you have papers to add to this list please let us and others know via the [http://urban-climate.net/umep/SUEWS#Development.2C_Suggestions_and_Support email list]
 
 
[https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-05733-y Järvi et al. (2017)] Application and evalution in cold climates. Implications of warming
 
Järvi L, S Grimmond, JP McFadden, A Christen, I Strachan, M Taka, L Warsta, M Heimann 2017: Warming effects on the urban hydrology in cold climate regions Scientific Reports 7: 5833  https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-05733-y
 
 
[https://doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2017.05.001 Kokkonen et al. 2017] Downscaling climate (rainfall) data to 1 h
 
Kokkonen T, CSB Grimmond, O Räty, HC Ward, A Christen, T Oke, S Kotthaus, L Järvi 2017: Sensitivity of Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) to downscaling of reanalysis forcing data Urban Climate  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2017.05.001
 
 
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2017.04.001 Ward and Grimmond (2017)] for example applications:
 
Ward HC, S Grimmond 2017: Using biophysical modelling to assess the impact of various scenarios on summertime urban climate across Greater London Landscape and Urban Planning 165, 142–161, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2017.04.001 
 
 
[http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/qj.3028/full Demuzere et al. 2017] evaluation in Singapore and comparison with other urban land surface models
 
Demuzere M, S Harshan, L Järvi, M Roth, CSB Grimmond, V Masson, KW Oleson, E Velasco H Wouters 2017: Impact of urban canopy models and external parameters on the modelled urban energy balance QJRMS, 143, Issue 704, Part A, 1581–1596 doi:10.1002/qj.3028
 
 
[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212095516300256 Ward et al. (2016)] Evaluation of SUEWS model
 
Ward HC, Kotthaus S, Järvi L and Grimmond CSB (2016) Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS): Development and evaluation at two UK sites. Urban Climate http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2016.05.001.[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212095516300256 Ward et al. (2016)]
 
 
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-16-0082.1 Ao et al. (2016)] Evaluation of radiation in Shanghai
 
Ao XY, CSB Grimmond, DW Liu, ZH Han, P Hu, YD Wang, XR Zhen, JG Tan 2016:  Radiation fluxes in a business district of Shanghai JAMC, 55, 2451-2468 http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-16-0082.1
 
 
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2014.11.001 Onomura et al. (2015)] Boundary layer modelling
 
Onomura S, Grimmond CSB, Lindberg F, Holmer B & Thorsson S (2015) Meteorological forcing data for urban outdoor thermal comfort models from a coupled convective boundary layer and surface energy balance scheme Urban Climate,11, 1-23 doi:10.1016/j.uclim.2014.11.001
 
 
[https://www.geosci-model-dev.net/7/1691/2014/gmd-7-1691-2014.pdf Järvi et al. (2014)] Snow melt model development
 
Järvi L, Grimmond CSB, Taka M, Nordbo A, Setälä H & Strachan IB 2014: Development of the Surface Urban Energy and Water balance Scheme (SUEWS) for cold climate cities, Geosci. Model Dev. 7, 1691-1711, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-1691-2014
 
 
 
[http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Evaluation_and_application_studies Other papers]
 
 
== Introduction == <!--T:3-->
 
[[File:SUEWS_Overview_s.png|frame|right|
 
Overview of SUEWS]]
 
 
<!--T:4-->
 
Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme ('''SUEWS''') (Järvi et al. 2011<ref name="J11">Järvi L, Grimmond CSB & Christen A (2011) The Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS): Evaluation in Los Angeles and Vancouver. J. Hydrol. 411, 219-237.</ref>, Ward et al. 2016<ref name="W16">Ward HC, Kotthaus S, Järvi L and Grimmond CSB 2016: Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS): development and evaluation at two UK sites. Urban Climate. 18, 1-32 [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2016.05.001 doi: 10.1016/j.uclim.2016.05.001]</ref>) is able to simulate the urban radiation, energy and water balances using only commonly measured meteorological variables and information about the surface cover. SUEWS utilizes an evaporation-interception approach (Grimmond et al. 1991<ref name="G91">Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (1991) An Evaporation-Interception Model for Urban Areas. Water Resour. Res. 27, 1739-1755. </ref>), similar to that used in forests, to model evaporation from urban surfaces.
 
 
<!--T:5-->
 
[[File:SUEWS_SurfaceWaterBalance_v2_xxs.jpg|frame|right|
 
The seven surface types considered in SUEWS]]
 
 
<!--T:6-->
 
The model uses seven surface types: paved, buildings, evergreen trees/shrubs, deciduous trees/shrubs, grass, bare soil and water. The surface state for each surface type at each time step is calculated from the running water balance of the canopy where the evaporation is calculated from the Penman-Monteith equation. The soil moisture below each surface type (excluding water) is taken into account.
 
 
<!--T:7-->
 
Horizontal movement of water above and below ground level is allowed. The user can specify the model time-step, but 5 min is strongly recommended. The main output file is provided at a resolution of 60 min by default. The model provides the radiation and energy balance components, surface and soil wetness, surface and soil runoff and the drainage for each surface. Timestamps refer to the end of the averaging period.
 
 
Model applicability: SUEWS is a neighbourhood-scale or local-scale model.
 
 
== SUEWS and UMEP ==
 
 
SUEWS can be run as a standalone model but also can be used within [http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual UMEP]. There are numerous tools included within UMEP to help a user get started. The [http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Urban_Energy_Balance:_Urban_Energy_Balance_.28SUEWS.2C_simple.29 SUEWS simple] within UMEP is a fast way to start using SUEWS.
 
 
The version of SUEWS within UMEP is the complete model. Thus all options that are listed in this manual are available to the user. In the UMEP [http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Urban_Energy_Balance:_Urban_Energy_Balance_.28SUEWS.2C_simple.29 SUEWS simple] runs all options are set to values to allow intial exploration of the model behaviour.
 
 
The version of SUEWS within UMEP is a more recent release of the model than the independent SUEWS release.
 
 
{|class="wikitable" style="color: black; background-color: #e5ecf6;"
 
|colspan="3" style="color: white; background-color: blue;text-align:center;" |'''UMEP'''
 
|style="color: white; background-color: blue;text-align:center;" | Description
 
|-
 
|rowspan="11" style="color: black; background-color: #ffff99;" |'''Pre-Processor'''
 
|rowspan="2" style="color: black; background-color:#ffff41;" |Meteorological Data
 
|style="color: black; background-color: #dfdf00;" |[http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Meteorological_Data:_MetPreprocessor Prepare Existing Data]
 
|Transforms meteorological data into UMEP format
 
|-
 
|style="color: black; background-color: #dfdf00;" |[http://www.urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Meteorological_Data:_Download_data_.28WATCH.29 Download data (WATCH)]
 
|Prepare meteorological dataset from [http://www.eu-watch.org/data_availability WATCH]
 
|-
 
|rowspan="2" style="color: black; background-color: #ffff41;" |Spatial Data
 
|style="color: black; background-color: #dfdf00;"|[http://www.urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Spatial_Data:_Spatial_Data_Downloader Spatial Data Downloader]
 
|Plugin for retrieving geodata from online services suitable for various UMEP related tools
 
|-
 
|style="color: black; background-color: #dfdf00;"|[http://www.urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Spatial_Data:_LCZ_Converter LCZ Converter]
 
|Conversion from Local Climate Zones (LCZs) in the WUDAPT database into SUEWS input data
 
|-
 
|rowspan="3" style="color: black; background-color: #ffff41;"|Urban land cover
 
|style="color: black; background-color: #dfdf00;" |[http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Urban_Land_Cover:_Land_Cover_Reclassifier Land Cover Reclassifier]
 
|Reclassifies a grid into UMEP format land cover grid. ''Land surface models''
 
|-
 
|style="color: black; background-color: #dfdf00;" |[http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Urban_Land_Cover:_Land_Cover_Reclassifier Land Cover Fraction (Point)]
 
|Land cover fractions estimates from a land cover grid based on a specific point in space
 
|-
 
|style="color: black; background-color: #dfdf00;" |[http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Urban_Land_Cover:_Land_Cover_Fraction_.28Grid.29 Land Cover Fraction (Grid)]
 
|Land cover fractions estimates from a land cover grid based on a polygon grid
 
|-
 
|rowspan="3" style="color: black; background-color: #ffff41;"|Urban Morphology
 
|style="color: black; background-color: #dfdf00;" |[http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Urban_Morphology:_Morphometric_Calculator_.28Point.29 Morphometric Calculator (Point)]
 
|Morphometric parameters from a DSM based on a specific point in space
 
|-
 
|style="color: black; background-color: #dfdf00;" |[http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Urban_Morphology:_Morphometric_Calculator_.28Grid.29 Morphometric Calculator (Grid)]
 
|Morphometric parameters estimated from a DSM based on a polygon grid
 
|-
 
|style="color: black; background-color: #dfdf00;" | [http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Urban_Morphology:_Source_Area_.28Point.29 Source Area Model (Point)]
 
|Source area calculated from a DSM based on a specific point in space.
 
|-
 
|colspan="2" style="color: black; background-color: #dfdf00;"|[http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Pre-Processor:_SUEWS_Prepare SUEWS Prepare]
 
|Preprocessing and preparing input data for the SUEWS model
 
|-
 
|rowspan="4" style="color: black; background-color: #f4d8a9;"|'''Processor'''
 
 
 
|rowspan="4" style="color: black; background-color:#f4b74f;"|Urban Energy Balance
 
|style="color: gray; background-color: #fb9e00;"|Anthropogenic Heat (Q<sub>F</sub>) (LQF)
 
|Spatial variations anthropogenic heat release for urban areas
 
|-
 
|style="color: black; background-color: #fb9e00;" |[http://www.urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Urban_Energy_Balance:_GQF  GQF]
 
|Anthropogenic Heat (Q<sub>F</sub>).
 
|-
 
|style="color: black; background-color: #fb9e00;" |[http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Urban_Energy_Balance:_Urban_Energy_Balance_.28SUEWS.2C_simple.29 SUEWS (Simple)]
 
|Urban Energy and Water Balance.
 
|-
 
|style="color: black; background-color: #fb9e00;" |[http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Urban_Energy_Balance:_Urban_Energy_Balance_.28SUEWS.2FBLUEWS.2C_advanced.29 SUEWS (Advanced)]
 
|Urban Energy and Water Balance.
 
|-
 
|rowspan="2" style="color: black; background-color: #ffbfbc;"|'''Post-Processor'''
 
|rowspan="1" style="color: black; background-color: #fd544b;"|Urban Energy Balance
 
|style="color: black; background-color: #ff1105;"|[http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Urban_Energy_Balance:_SUEWS_Analyser SUEWS analyser]
 
|Plugin for plotting and statistical analysis of model results from SUEWS simple and SUEWS advanced
 
|-
 
|rowspan="1" style="color: black; background-color: #fd544b;"|Benchmark
 
|style="color: black; background-color: #ff1105;"|[http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Benchmark_System Benchmark System]
 
|For statistical analysis of model results, such as SUEWS
 
|}
 
 
==Parameterisations and sub-models within SUEWS== <!--T:8-->
 
 
===Net all-wave radiation, Q* === <!--T:10-->
 
There are several options for modelling or using observed radiation components depending on the data available. As a minimum, SUEWS requires incoming shortwave radiation to be provided.
 
#Observed net all-wave radiation can be provided as input instead of being calculated by the model.
 
#Observed incoming shortwave and incoming longwave components can be provided as input, instead of incoming longwave being calculated by the model.
 
#Other data can be provided as input, such as cloud fraction (see options in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl]]).
 
#'''NARP''' (Net All-wave Radiation Parameterization, Offerle et al. 2003<ref name="O2003"> Offerle B, Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (2003) Parameterization of Net All-Wave Radiation for Urban Areas. J. Appl. Meteorol. 42, 1157-1173.</ref> , Loridan et al. 2011<ref name="L2011"> Loridan T, CSB Grimmond, BD Offerle, DT Young, T Smith, L Järvi, F Lindberg (2011) Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS): longwave radiation parameterization & seasonality related developments. Journal of Applied Meteorology & Climatology 50, 185-202, doi: 10.1175/2010JAMC2474.1</ref> ) scheme calculates outgoing shortwave and incoming and outgoing longwave radiation components based on incoming shortwave radiation, temperature, relative humidity and surface characteristics (albedo, emissivity).
 
 
===Anthropogenic heat flux, Q<sub>F</sub> === <!--T:14-->
 
 
<!--T:15-->
 
#Two simple anthropogenic heat flux sub-models exist within SUEWS:
 
#*Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/> approach, based on heating and cooling degree days and population density (allows distinction between weekdays and weekends).
 
#*Loridan et al. (2011)<ref name="L2011"/> approach, based on a linear piece-wise relation with air temperature.
 
#Pre-calculated values can be supplied with the meteorological forcing data, either derived from knowledge of the study site, or obtained from other models, for example:
 
#* '''LUCY''' (Allen et al. 2011<ref name=lucy/>, Lindberg et al. 2013<ref name=lucy2/>). A new version has been now included in UMEP. To distinguish it is referred to as [http://urban-climate.net/umep/LQF_Manual '''LQF''']
 
#* '''GreaterQF''' (Iamarino et al. 2011<ref name="I11"> Iamarino M, Beevers S & Grimmond CSB (2011) High-resolution (space, time) anthropogenic heat emissions: London 1970-2025. International J. of Climatology. 32, 1754-1767.</ref>). A new version has been now included in UMEP. To distinguish it is referred to as [http://urban-climate.net/umep/GQF_Manual '''GQF''']
 
 
===Storage heat flux, ΔQ<sub>S</sub>=== <!--T:16-->
 
 
<!--T:17-->
 
#Three sub-models are available to estimate the storage heat flux:
 
#*'''OHM''' (Objective Hysteresis Model, Grimmond et al. 1991<ref name="G91OHM"> Grimmond CSB, Cleugh HA & Oke TR (1991) An objective urban heat storage model and its comparison with other schemes. Atmos. Env. 25B, 311-174.</ref>, Grimmond & Oke 1999a<ref name="GO99QS">Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (1999a) Heat storage in urban areas: Local-scale observations and evaluation of a simple model. J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 922-940.</ref>, 2002<ref name="GO2002"> Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (2002) Turbulent Heat Fluxes in Urban Areas: Observations and a Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS) J. Appl. Meteorol. 41, 792-810.</ref>). Storage heat heat flux is calculated using empirically-fitted relations with net all-wave radiation and the rate of change in net all-wave radiation.
 
#*'''AnOHM''' (Analytical Objective Hysteresis Model, Sun et al. 2017<ref name="AnOHM17"> Sun T, Wang ZH, Oechel W & Grimmond CSB (2017) The Analytical Objective Hysteresis Model (AnOHM v1.0): Methodology to Determine Bulk Storage Heat Flux Coefficients. Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss. doi: 10.5194/gmd-2016-300.</ref>). OHM approach using analytically-derived  coefficients. ('''Not recommended in v2017b''')
 
#*'''ESTM''' (Element Surface Temperature Method, Offerle et al. 2005<ref name="Oaf2005"> Offerle B, CSB Grimmond, K Fortuniak (2005) Heat storage & anthropogenic heat flux in relation to the energy balance of a central European city center. International J. of Climatology. 25: 1405–1419 doi: 10.1002/joc.1198</ref>). Heat transfer through urban facets (roof, wall, road, interior) is calculated from surface temperature measurements and knowledge of material properties. ('''Not recommended in v2017b''')
 
#Alternatively, 'observed' storage heat flux can be supplied with the meteorological forcing data.
 
 
===Turbulent heat fluxes,  Q<sub>H</sub> and Q<sub>E</sub> === <!--T:20-->
 
#'''LUMPS''' (Local-scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme, Grimmond & Oke 2002<ref name="GO2002"/>) provides a simple means of estimating sensible and latent heat fluxes based on the proportion of vegetation in the study area.
 
#'''SUEWS''' adopts a more biophysical approach to calculate the latent heat flux; the sensible heat flux is then calculated as the residual of the energy balance. The initial estimate of stability is based on the LUMPS calculations of sensible and latent heat flux. Future versions will have alternative sensible heat and storage heat flux options.
 
 
Sensible and latent heat fluxes from both LUMPS and SUEWS are provided in the [[#Output files|model output]]. Whether the turbulent heat fluxes are calculated using LUMPS or SUEWS can have a major impact on the results. For SUEWS, an appropriate surface conductance parameterisation is also critical<ref name="J11"/><ref name="W16"/>. For more details see [[#Differences between SUEWS, LUMPS and FRAISE|Differences between SUEWS, LUMPS and FRAISE]].
 
 
===Water balance=== <!--T:23-->
 
The running water balance at each time step is based on the urban water balance model of Grimmond et al. (1986)<ref name="G86">Grimmond CSB, Oke TR and Steyn DG (1986) Urban water-balance 1. A model for daily totals. Water Resour Res 22: 1397-1403.</ref> and urban evaporation-interception scheme of Grimmond and Oke (1991)<ref name="G91"/>.
 
*Precipitation is a required variable in the meteorological forcing file.
 
*Irrigation can be modelled<ref name="J11"/> or observed values can be provided if data are available.
 
*Drainage equations and coefficients to use must be specified in the input files.
 
*Soil moisture can be calculated by the model ('''Use of observed soil moisture is not possible in v2017b''').
 
*Runoff is permitted:
 
**between surface types within each model grid
 
**between model grids ('''Not implemented in v2017b''')
 
**to deep soil
 
**to pipes.
 
 
===Snowmelt=== <!--T:25-->
 
The snowmelt model within SUEWS is described in Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014">Järvi L, Grimmond CSB, Taka M, Nordbo A, Setälä H & Strachan IB (2014) Development of the Surface Urban Energy and Water balance Scheme (SUEWS) for cold climate cities, Geosci. Model Dev. 7, 1691-1711, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-1691-2014.</ref>. Due to changes in the new model version (since v2016a) when compared to the older versions, the snow calculation has slightly changed. The main difference is that previously all surface state could freeze in  1-h time step but now the amount of freezing surface state is calculated similar way as melt water can freeze within the snow pack. Also the snowmelt-related coefficients have slightly changed (see [[#SUEWS_Snow.txt|SUEWS_Snow.txt]]).
 
 
===Convective boundary layer=== <!--T:24-->
 
A convective boundary layer (CBL) slab model (Cleugh and Grimmond 2001<ref name="CG2001"> Cleugh HA & Grimmond CSB (2001) Modelling regional scale surface energy exchanges and CBL growth in a heterogeneous, urban-rural landscape. Bound.-Layer Meteor. 98, 1-31.</ref>) calculates the CBL height, temperature and humidity during daytime (Onomura et al. 2015<ref name="Shiho2015"> Onomura S, Grimmond CSB, Lindberg F, Holmer B & Thorsson S (2015) Meteorological forcing data for urban outdoor thermal comfort models from a coupled convective boundary layer and surface energy balance scheme Urban Climate,11, 1-23 doi:10.1016/j.uclim.2014.11.001</ref>).
 
 
===Thermal comfort===
 
'''SOLWEIG''' (Solar and longwave environmental irradiance geometry model, Lindberg et al. 2008<ref name="FL2008"> Lindberg F, Holmer B & Thorsson S (2008) SOLWEIG 1.0 – Modelling spatial variations of 3D radiant fluxes and mean radiant temperature in complex urban settings. International Journal of Biometeorology 52, 697–713.</ref>, Lindberg and Grimmond 2011<ref name="FL2011"> Lindberg F & Grimmond C (2011) The influence of vegetation and building morphology on shadow patterns and mean radiant temperature in urban areas: model development and evaluation. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 105:3, 311-323.</ref>) is a 2D radiation model to estimate mean radiant temperature.
 
 
[[File:Bluews_2.jpg|frame|
 
Overview of scales. Source: Onomura et al. (2015) <ref name="Shiho2015" />]]
 
 
==Preparing to run the model== <!--T:29-->
 
The following is to help with the model setup.
 
Note that there is a version of SUEWS in [http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual UMEP] and there are some starting [http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Tutorials tutorials] for that. The version there is the same (i.e. the executable) as the standalone version so you can swap to that later once you have some familiarity.
 
 
 
 
===Preparatory reading===
 
Read the manual and relevant papers (and references therein):
 
*Järvi L, Grimmond CSB & Christen A (2011) The Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS): Evaluation in Los Angeles and Vancouver. J. Hydrol. 411, 219-237. [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022169411006937 doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.10.00]
 
*Järvi L, Grimmond CSB, Taka M, Nordbo A, Setälä H & Strachan IB (2014) Development of the Surface Urban Energy and Water balance Scheme (SUEWS) for cold climate cities. Geosci. Model Dev. 7, 1691-1711. [http://www.geosci-model-dev.net/7/1691/2014/ doi:10.5194/gmd-7-1691-2014]
 
*Ward HC, Kotthaus S, Järvi L and Grimmond CSB (2016) Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS): development and evaluation at two UK sites. Urban Climate 18, 1-32. [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212095516300256/ doi:10.1016/j.uclim.2016.05.001]
 
 
[http://urban-climate.net/umep/SUEWS#Recent_publications See other publications with example applications]
 
 
===Decide what type of model run you are interested in === <!--T:30-->
 
 
<!--T:27-->
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!
 
!Available in this release
 
|-
 
|LUMPS
 
|Yes –  not standalone
 
|-
 
|SUEWS at a point or for an individual area
 
| Yes
 
|-
 
|SUEWS for multiple grids or areas
 
| Yes
 
|-
 
|SUEWS with Boundary Layer (BL)
 
| Yes
 
|-
 
|SUEWS with snow
 
| Yes
 
|-
 
|SUEWS with SOLWEIG
 
| No
 
|-
 
|SUEWS with SOLWEIG and BL
 
| No
 
|}
 
 
===Download the program and example data files === <!--T:31-->
 
Visit the website to receive a link to download the program and example data files. Select the appropriate compiled version of the model to download.  For windows there is an installation version which will put the programs and all the files into the appropriate place. There is also a version linked to QGIS: [http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP '''UMEP'''].
 
 
Note, as the definition of long double precision varies between computers (e.g. Mac vs Windows) slightly different results may occur in the output files.
 
 
Test/example files are given for the London KCL site, 2011 data (denoted Kc11)<!--T:34-->
 
 
<!--T:35-->
 
In the following SS is the site code (e.g. Kc), ss the grid ID, YYYY the year and tt the time interval.
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Filename
 
!Description
 
!Input/output
 
|-
 
|SSss_data.txt || Meteorological input file (60-min) || Input
 
|-
 
|SSss_YYYY_data_5.txt || Meteorological input file (5-min) || Input
 
|-
 
|InitialConditionsSSss_YYYY.nml(+) ||Initial conditions file ||Input
 
|-
 
|SUEWS_SiteInfo_SSss.xlsm || Spreadsheet containing all other input information || Input
 
|-
 
|RunControl.nml || Sets model run options || Input (located in main directory)
 
|-
 
|SS_Filechoices.txt || Summary of model run options ||Output
 
|-
 
|SSss_YYYY_5.txt ||(Optional) 5-min resolution output file ||Output
 
|-
 
|SSss_YYYY_60.txt ||60-min resolution output file ||Output
 
|-
 
|SSss_DailyState.txt ||Daily state variables (all years in one file) ||Output
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
<!--T:36-->
 
(+) There is a second file InitialConditionsSSss_YYYY_EndOfRun.nml or InitialConditionsSSss_YYYY+1.nml in the input directory. At the end of the run, and at the end of each year of the run, these files are written out so that this information could be used to initialize further model runs.
 
 
===Run the model for example data=== <!--T:37-->
 
Before running the model for your own data it is good to make certain that you can run the test data and get the same results as in the example files provided. It is recommended that you make a copy of the example output files and put them somewhere else so you can compare the results. When you run the program it will write over the supplied files.
 
 
<!--T:39-->
 
To run the model you can use '''Command Prompt''' (in the directory where the programme is located type the model name) or just double click the executable file.
 
 
<!--T:38-->
 
Please see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]]  if you have problems running the model.
 
 
===Preparation of data=== <!--T:40-->
 
This section describes the information required to run SUEWS for your site. The input data can be summarised as follows:
 
#Continuous ''meteorological forcing data'' for the entire period to be modelled. Note you can not have gaps in the meteorological data. If you need help with preparing the data you may want to use some of the tools in [http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP_Manual#Meteorological_Data:_MetPreprocessor UMEP].
 
#Knowledge of the ''surface and soil conditions immediately before the start of the run'' (if these initial conditions are not known, it is usually possible to determine suitable values by running the model and using the output at the end of the run to infer the conditions at the start of the run).
 
#The ''location of the site'' (latitude, longitude, altitude).
 
#Information about the ''characteristics of the surface'', including land cover, heights of buildings and trees, radiative characteristics (e.g. albedo, emissivity), drainage characteristics, soil characteristics, snow characteristics, phenological characteristics (e.g. seasonal cycle of LAI).
 
#Information about ''human behaviour'', including energy use and water use (e.g. for irrigation or street cleaning) and snow clearing (if applicable). The anthropogenic energy use and water use may be provided as a time series in the meteorological forcing file if these data are available or modelled based on parameters provided to the model, including population density, hourly and weekly profiles of energy and water use, information about the proportion of properties using irrigation and the type of irrigation (automatic or manual).
 
 
It is particularly important to ensure the following input information is appropriate and representative of the site:
 
*Fractions of different land cover types and (less so) heights of buildings<ref name="W16"/>
 
*Accurate meteorological forcing data, particularly precipitation and incoming shortwave radiation<ref name="Ko17"> Kokkonen TV, Grimmond CSB, Räty O, Ward HC, Christen A, Oke TR, Kotthaus S & Järvi L (in review) Sensitivity of Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) to downscaling of reanalysis forcing data. </ref>
 
*Initial soil moisture conditions<ref name="Best2014"> Best MJ & Grimmond CSB (2014) Importance of initial state and atmospheric conditions for urban land surface models’ performance. Urban Climate 10: 387-406. doi: 10.1016/j.uclim.2013.10.006. </ref>
 
*Anthropogenic heat flux parameters, particularly if there are considerable energy emissions from transport, buildings, metabolism, etc<ref name="W16"/>
 
*External water use (if irrigation or street cleaning occurs)
 
*Snow clearing (if running the snow option)
 
*Surface conductance parameterisation<ref name="J11"/><ref name="W16"/>
 
 
SUEWS can be run either for an individual area or for multiple areas. There is no requirement for the areas to be of any particular shape but here we refer to them as model 'grids'.
 
 
====Preparation of site characteristics and model parameters====<!--T:41-->
 
The area to be modelled is described by a set of characteristics that are specified in the [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]] file. Each row corresponds to one model grid for one year (i.e. running a single grid over three years would require three rows; running two grids over two years would require four rows). Characteristics are often selected by a code for a particular set of conditions. For example, a specific soil type (links to [[#SUEWS_Soil.txt|SUEWS_Soil.txt]]) or characteristics of deciduous trees in a particular region (links to [[#SUEWS_Veg.txt|SUEWS_Veg.txt]]). The intent is to build a library of characteristics for different types of urban areas. The codes are specified by the user, must be integer values and must be unique within the first column of each input file, otherwise the model will return an error. (Note in [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]] the first column is labelled 'Grid' and can contain repeat values for different years.) See [[#Input files|Input files]] for details.
 
Note [http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP UMEP] maybe helpful for components of this.
 
 
 
=====Land cover=====
 
 
<!--T:42-->
 
For each grid, the land cover must be classified using the following surface types:
 
 
<!--T:43-->
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Classification
 
!Surface type
 
!File where characteristics are specified
 
|-
 
|Non-vegetated ||Paved surfaces || [[#SUEWS_NonVeg.txt|SUEWS_NonVeg.txt]]
 
|-
 
| ||Building surfaces || [[#SUEWS_NonVeg.txt|SUEWS_NonVeg.txt]]
 
|-
 
| ||Bare soil surfaces || [[#SUEWS_NonVeg.txt|SUEWS_NonVeg.txt]]
 
|-
 
| Vegetation ||Evergreen trees and shrubs || [[#SUEWS_Veg.txt|SUEWS_Veg.txt]]
 
|-
 
| ||Deciduous trees and shrubs || [[#SUEWS_Veg.txt|SUEWS_Veg.txt]]
 
|-
 
|| ||Grass || [[#SUEWS_Veg.txt|SUEWS_Veg.txt]]
 
|-
 
||Water ||Water || [[#SUEWS_Water.txt|SUEWS_Water.txt]]
 
|-
 
|Snow||Snow || [[#SUEWS_Snow.txt|SUEWS_Snow.txt]]
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
<!--T:44-->
 
The surface cover fractions (i.e. proportion of the grid taken up by each surface) must be specified in [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]]. The surface cover fractions are '''critical''', so make certain that the different surface cover fractions are appropriate for your site.
 
 
For some locations, land cover information may be already available (e.g. from various remote sensing resources). If not, websites like Bing Maps and Google Maps allow you to see aerial images of your site and can be used to estimate the relative proportion of each land cover type.
 
If detailed spatial datasets are available, [http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP UMEP] allows for a direct link to a GIS environment using QGIS.
 
 
=====Anthropogenic heat flux (Q<sub>F</sub>)===== <!--T:45-->
 
You can either model Q<sub>F</sub> within SUEWS or provide it as an input.
 
*To model it population density is needed as an input for LUMPS and SUEWS to calculate Q<sub>F</sub>.
 
*If you have no information about the population of the site we recommend that you use the LUCY model<ref name=lucy> Allen L, F Lindberg, CSB Grimmond (2011) Global to city scale model for anthropogenic heat flux, International Journal of Climatology, 31, 1990-2005.</ref> <ref name=lucy2>Lindberg F, Grimmond CSB, Nithiandamdan Y, Kotthaus S, Allen L (2013) Impact of city changes and weather on anthropogenic heat flux in Europe 1995–2015, Urban Climate,4,1-13 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2013.03.002 paper]</ref> to estimate the anthropogenic heat flux which can then be provided as input SUEWS along with the meteorological forcing data. The LUCY model can be downloaded from [http://micromet.reading.ac.uk/ here].
 
 
Alternatively, you can use the updated version of LUCY called [http://urban-climate.net/umep/LQF_Manual LQF], which is included in [http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP UMEP].
 
 
=====Other information=====
 
The surface cover fractions and population density can have a major impact on the model output. However, it is important to consider the suitability of all parameters for your site. Using inappropriate parameters may result in the model returning an error or, worse, generating output that is simply not representative of your site. Please read the section on [[#Input files|Input files]]. Recommended or reasonable ranges of values are suggested for some parameters, along with important considerations for how to select appropriate values for your site.
 
 
=====Data Entry===== <!--T:46-->
 
To create the series of input text files describing the characteristics of your site, there are three options:
 
# Data can be entered directly into the input text files. The example (.txt) files provide a template to create your own files which can be edited with a [[#A text editor|text editor]] directly.
 
# Data can be entered into the spreadsheet '''SUEWS_SiteInfo.xlsm''' and the input text files generated by running the macro.
 
# Use [http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP| UMEP].
 
 
'''To run the xlsm macro:''' <!--T:47-->
 
Enter the data for your site into the xlsm spreadsheet '''SUEWS_SiteInfo.xlsm''' and then use the macro to create the text files which will appear the same directory.
 
 
<!--T:50-->
 
If there is a problem
 
*Make sure none of the text files to be generated are open.
 
*It is recommended to close the spreadsheet before running the actual model code.
 
 
<!--T:52-->
 
Note that in all txt files:
 
*The first two rows are headers. The first row is the column number; the second row is the column name.
 
*The names and order of the columns should not be altered from the templates, as these are checked by the model and errors will be returned if particular columns cannot be found.
 
*Since v2017a it is no longer necessary for the meteorological forcing data to have two rows with -9 in column 1 as their last two rows.
 
*“!” indicates a comment, so any text following "!" on the same line will not be read by the model.
 
*If data are unavailable or not required, enter the value -999 in the correct place in the input file.
 
*Ensure the units are correct for all input information. See [[#Input files|Input files]] for a description of parameters.
 
 
<!--T:53-->
 
In addition to these text files, the following files are also needed to run the model.
 
 
====Preparation of the RunControl file====
 
In the RunControl.nml file the site name (SS_) and directories for the model input and output are given.
 
This means '''before running''' the model (even the with the example datasets) you must either
 
#open the RunControl.nml file and edit the input and output file paths and the site name (with a [[#A text editor|text editor]]) so that they are correct for your setup, or
 
#create the directories specified in the RunControl.nml file
 
 
<!--T:56-->
 
From the given site identification the model identifies the input files and generates the output files. 
 
For example if you specify
 
'''FileOutputPath = “C:\FolderName\SUEWSOutput\”''' and use site code SS the model creates an output file
 
'''C:\FolderName\SUEWSOutput\SSss_YYYY_TT.txt''' (remember to add the last backslash in windows and slash in Linux/Mac).
 
 
<!--T:57-->
 
If the file paths are not correct the program will return an error when run (see [[#Error messages: problems.txt|error messages]]) and write the error to the problems.txt file.
 
 
====Preparation of the Meteorological forcing data==== <!--T:58-->
 
The model time-step is specified in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]] (5 min is highly recommended). If meteorological forcing data are not available at this resolution, SUEWS has the option to downscale (e.g. hourly) data to the time-step required. See details about the [[#SSss_YYYY_data_tt.txt|meteorological forcing data]] to learn more about choices of data input. Each grid can have its own meteorological forcing file, or a single file can be used for all grids. The forcing data should be representative of the local-scale, i.e. collected (or derived) above the height of the roughness elements (buildings and trees).
 
 
====Preparation of the InitialConditions file==== <!--T:59-->
 
Information about the surface state and meteorological conditions just before the start of the run are provided in the Initial Conditions file. At the very start of the run, each grid can have its own Initial Conditions file, or a single file can be used for all grids. For details see [[#InitialConditions|InitialConditions]].
 
 
===Run the model for your site===<!--T:60-->
 
To run the model you can use '''Command Prompt''' (in the directory where the programme is located type the model name) or just double click the executable file.
 
 
<!--T:62-->
 
Please see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]]  if you have problems running the model.
 
 
===Analyse the output===<!--T:63-->
 
It is a good idea to perform initial checks that the model output looks reasonable.
 
 
<!--T:64-->
 
{|class="wikitable"
 
!Characteristic
 
!Things to check
 
|-
 
|Leaf area index
 
|Does the phenology look appropriate (i.e. what does the seasonal cycle of [http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Leaf_area_index leaf area index (LAI)] look like?)
 
*Are the leaves on the trees at approximately the right time of the year?
 
|-
 
|Kdown
 
|Is the timing of the diurnal cycle correct for the incoming solar radiation?
 
*Although Kdown is a required input, it is also included in the output file. It is a good idea to check that the timing of Kdown in the output file is appropriate, as problems can indicate errors with the timestamp, incorrect time settings or problems with the disaggregation. In particular, make sure the sign of the longitude is specified correctly in [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]].
 
*Checking solar angles (zenith and azimuth) can also be a useful check that the timing is correct.
 
|-
 
|Albedo
 
|Is the bulk albedo correct?
 
*This is critical because a small error has an impact on all the fluxes (energy and hydrology).
 
*If you have measurements of outgoing shortwave radiation compare these with the modelled values.
 
*How do the values compare to literature values for your area?
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
===Summary of files=== <!--T:73-->
 
The table below lists the files required to run SUEWS and the output files produced. SS is the two-letter code (specified in RunControl) representing the site name, ss is the grid identification (integer values between 0 and 2,147,483,647 (largest 4-byte integer)) and YYYY is the year. TT is the resolution of the input/output file and tt is the model time-step.
 
 
The last column indicates whether the files are needed/produced once per run (1/run), or once per day (1/day), for each year (1/year) or for each grid (1/grid).
 
 
[B] indicates files used with the CBL part of SUEWS (BLUEWS) and therefore are only needed/produced if this option is selected
 
[E] indicates files associated with ESTM storage heat flux models and therefore are only needed/produced if this option is selected
 
 
<!--T:75-->
 
{|class="wikitable"
 
!Filename
 
!Description
 
!Location
 
!Option
 
|-
 
|'''Program''' || || ||
 
|-
 
|SUEWS_V2017b.exe ||SUEWS executable|| Directory where the program will run ||
 
|-
 
|[[#Input files|'''Input files''']] || || ||
 
|-
 
|RunControl.nml ||Specifies options for the model run || Same directory as executable || 1/run
 
|-
 
|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt ||Main input file for this site ||Input directory || 1/run
 
|-
 
|SUEWS_NonVeg.txt ||Inputs for non-vegetated surfaces ||Input directory|| 1/run
 
|-
 
|SUEWS_Veg.txt ||Inputs for vegetated surfaces ||Input directory|| 1/run
 
|-
 
|SUEWS_Water.txt ||Inputs for water surfaces ||Input directory|| 1/run
 
|-
 
|SUEWS_Snow.txt ||Inputs for snow ||Input directory|| 1/run
 
|-
 
|SUEWS_Soil.txt ||Inputs for sub-surface soil ||Input directory|| 1/run
 
|-
 
|SUEWS_AnthropogenicHeat.txt ||Inputs for anthropogenic heat flux ||Input directory|| 1/run
 
|-
 
|SUEWS_Irrigation.txt ||Inputs for irrigation ||Input directory|| 1/run
 
|-
 
|SUEWS_Profiles.txt ||Inputs for hourly profiles (energy use, water use, snow-clearing) ||Input directory|| 1/run
 
|-
 
|SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt || Inputs describing within-grid water distribution ||Input directory|| 1/run
 
|-
 
|SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt ||Inputs for OHM coefficients ||Input directory|| 1/run
 
|-
 
|SUEWS_Conductance.txt ||Inputs for surface conductance ||Input directory|| 1/run
 
|-
 
|SUEWS_SiteInfo.xlsm ||(Optional) spreadsheet for creating input files || Anywhere, but the input files created must be in the input directory|| -
 
|-
 
|SSss_YYYY_data_tt.txt / SSss_YYYY_data_TT.txt || Meteorological input file at model time-step (tt) / lower resolution (TT) || Input directory || 1/grid/year or 1/year
 
|-
 
|InitialConditionsSSss_YYYY.nml ||Initial conditions file ||Input directory || 1/grid/run or 1/run
 
|-
 
|ESTMinput.nml ||Specifies options and inputs for ESTM model ||Input directory || 1/run [E]
 
|-
 
|SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt ||Inputs for ESTM coefficients ||Input directory || 1/run [E]
 
|-
 
|SSss_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data_tt.txt || Surface temperature data input file at model time-step (tt) / lower resolution (TT) || Input directory || 1/grid/year or 1/year [E]
 
|-
 
|CBLinput.nml ||Specifies options and inputs for CBL model ||Input directory || 1/run [B]
 
|-
 
|CBL_initial_data.txt ||Initial data for CBL model ||Input directory || 1/day [B]
 
|-
 
|[[#Output files|'''Output files''']] || || ||
 
|-
 
|SSss_YYYY_tt.txt || Model output at model time-step (optional) ||Output directory || 1/grid/year
 
|-
 
|SSss_YYYY_TT.txt || Model output at resolution specified by ResolutionFilesOut ||Output directory || 1/grid/year
 
|-
 
|SSss_DailyState.txt ||Status at a daily time step || Output directory || 1/grid
 
|-
 
|InitialConditionsSSss_YYYY+1.nml || New InitialConditions file written for each grid at the end of each year for multi-year runs. If the run finishes before the end of the year the InitialConditions file is still written and the file name is appended with '_EndofRun' || Input directory || 1/grid/year
 
|-
 
|SS_FileChoices.txt ||Summary of model run options ||Output directory || 1/run
 
|-
 
|SS_YYYY_TT_OutputFormat.txt ||Describes header, units and formatting of the main output file ||Output directory || 1/run
 
|-
 
|SSss_YYYY_ESTM_tt.txt || Model output at model time-step (optional) ||Output directory || 1/grid/year [E]
 
|-
 
|SSss_YYYY_ESTM_TT.txt || Model output at resolution specified by ResoltuionFilesOut ||Output directory || 1/grid/year [E]
 
|-
 
|problems.txt || Contains details of serious errors encountered in the model run ||Same directory as executable || 1/run
 
|-
 
|warnings.txt || List of potential issues encountered in the model run ||Same directory as executable || 1/run
 
|-
 
|-
 
|CBL_id.txt ||CBL model output file for day of year id ||Output directory || 1/day [B]
 
|}
 
 
==Input files == <!--T:80-->
 
 
<!--T:81-->
 
SUEWS allows you to input a large number of parameters to describe the characteristics of your site. You should not assume that the example values provided in files or in the tables below are appropriate. Values marked with 'MD' are examples of recommended values (see the suggested references to help decide how appropriate these are for your site/model domain); values marked with 'MU' need to be set (i.e. changed from the example) for your site/model domain.
 
 
===RunControl.nml=== <!--T:84-->
 
The file '''RunControl.nml''' is a namelist that specifies the options for the model run. It must be located in the same directory as the executable file.
 
 
The format should be:
 
 
<!--T:85-->
 
&RunControl
 
Parameters and variables (see table below)
 
/
 
 
<!--T:86-->
 
In ''Linux'' and ''Mac'', please add an empty line after the end slash.
 
 
*The file is not case-sensitive.
 
*The parameters and variables can appear in any order.
 
 
<!--T:88-->
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Name
 
!Required/Optional
 
! colspan=4 | Description
 
|-
 
| colspan="4" style="text-align:left" | ''Model run options''
 
|-
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| CBLuse
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Determines whether a CBL slab model is used to calculate temperature and humidity.
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 0  ||
 
CBL model '''not''' used. SUEWS and LUMPS use temperature and humidity provided in the meteorological forcing file. 
 
|-
 
| 1 ||
 
CBL model is used to calculate temperature and humidity used in SUEWS and LUMPS.
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| SnowUse
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Determines whether the snow part of the model runs.
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 0  ||
 
Snow calculations are '''not''' performed.
 
|-
 
| 1  ||
 
Snow calculations are performed.
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| SOLWEIGUse
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Determines whether a high resolution radiation model to calculate mean radiant temperate should be used (SOLWEIG). NOTE: this option will considerably slow down the model since SOLWEIG is a 2D model.
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 0  ||
 
SOLWEIG calculations are '''not''' performed.
 
|-
 
| 1  ||
 
SOLWEIG calculations are performed. A grid of mean radiant temperature (Tmrt) is calculated based on high resolution digital surface models.
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="9"| NetRadiationMethod (previously NetRadiationChoice)
 
! scope="row" rowspan="9"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Determines method for calculation of radiation fluxes.
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 0  ||
 
Uses observed values of Q* supplied in meteorological forcing file.
 
|-
 
| 1 ||
 
*Q* modelled with L↓ observations supplied in meteorological forcing file.
 
*Zenith angle '''not''' accounted for in albedo calculation.
 
|-
 
| 2 ||
 
*Q* modelled with L↓ modelled using cloud cover fraction supplied in meteorological forcing file (Loridan et al. 2011<ref name="L2011"/>).
 
*Zenith angle '''not''' accounted for in albedo calculation.
 
|-
 
| 3 ||
 
*Q* modelled with L↓ modelled using air temperature and relative humidity supplied in meteorological forcing file (Loridan et al. 2011<ref name="L2011"/>).
 
*Zenith angle '''not''' accounted for in albedo calculation.
 
|-
 
| 100 ||
 
*Q* modelled with L↓ observations supplied in meteorological forcing file.
 
*Zenith angle accounted for in albedo calculation.
 
*SSss_YYYY_NARPOut.txt file produced.
 
* '''Not recommended in this release'''
 
|-
 
| 200 ||
 
*Q* modelled with L↓ modelled using cloud cover fraction supplied in meteorological forcing file (Loridan et al. 2011<ref name="L2011"/>).
 
*Zenith angle accounted for in albedo calculation.
 
*SSss_YYYY_NARPOut.txt file produced.
 
* '''Not recommended in this release'''
 
|-
 
| 300 ||
 
*Q* modelled with L↓ modelled using air temperature and relative humidity supplied in meteorological forcing file (Loridan et al. 2011<ref name="L2011"/>).
 
*Zenith angle accounted for in albedo calculation.
 
*SSss_YYYY_NARPOut.txt file produced.
 
* '''Not recommended in this release'''
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="5"| AnthropHeatMethod (previously AnthropHeatChoice)
 
! scope="row" rowspan="5"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Determines method for QF calculation.
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 0  ||
 
*Uses values provided in the meteorological forcing file (SSss_YYYY_data_tt.txt).
 
*If you do not want to include QF  to the calculation of surface energy balance, you should set values in the meteorological forcing file to zero to prevent calculation of QF.
 
*[http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP UMEP] provides two methods to calculate QF
 
#[http://urban-climate.net/umep/LQF_Manual LQF] which is simpler
 
#[http://urban-climate.net/umep/GQF_Manual GQF] which is more complete but requires more data inputs
 
|-
 
| 1 ||
 
*'''Currently not recommended!'''
 
*Calculated according to Loridan et al. (2011)<ref name="L2011/> using coefficients specified in SUEWS_AnthropogenicHeat.txt.
 
*Modelled values will be used even if QF is provided in the meteorological forcing file.
 
|-
 
| 2 ||
 
*'''Recommended'''
 
*Calculated according to Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/> using coefficients specified in SUEWS_AnthropogenicHeat.txt and diurnal patterns specified in SUEWS_Profiles.txt.
 
*Modelled values will be used even if QF is provided in the meteorological forcing file.
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="5"| AnthropCO2Method
 
! scope="row" rowspan="5"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Determines method for CO2 calculation.
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 1 ||
 
Not used.
 
|-
 
| 2 ||
 
*'''Under development - not recommended in v2017b'''
 
*Calculate CO2 emissions from traffic based on QF calculation.
 
|-
 
| 3 ||
 
*'''Under development - not recommended in v2017b'''
 
*Calculate CO2 emissions from traffic from input data provided.
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="6"| StorageHeatMethod (previously QSChoice)
 
! scope="row" rowspan="6"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Determines method for calculating storage heat flux ΔQS.
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 1  ||
 
*ΔQS modelled using the objective hysteresis model (OHM)<ref name="G91OHM"/><ref name="GO99QS"/><ref name="GO2002"/> using parameters specified for each surface type.
 
|-
 
| 2 ||
 
*Uses observed values of ΔQS supplied in meteorological forcing file.
 
|-
 
| 3 ||
 
*ΔQS modelled using AnOHM.
 
*'''Not available in v2017b'''
 
|-
 
| 4 ||
 
*ΔQS modelled using the Element Surface Temperature Method (ESTM) (Offerle et al. 2005<ref name="Oaf2005"/>).
 
*'''Not recommended in v2017b'''
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| OHMIncQF
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Determines whether the storage heat flux calculation uses Q* or (Q*+QF).
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 0  ||
 
ΔQS modelled Q* only.
 
|-
 
| 1 ||
 
ΔQS modelled using Q*+QF.
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="7"| StabilityMethod
 
! scope="row" rowspan="7"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Defines which atmospheric stability functions are  used.
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 0  ||
 
Not used.
 
|-
 
| 1  ||
 
Not used.
 
|-
 
| 2  ||
 
*'''Recommended'''
 
*Momentum - unstable: Dyer (1974)<ref name="D74">Dyer AJ (1974) A review of flux-profile relationships. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 7, 363-372.</ref> modified by Högstrom (1988)<ref name="H88">Högström U (1988) Non-dimensional wind and temperature profiles in the atmospheric surface layer: A re-evaluation. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 42, 55–78.</ref>;  stable: Van Ulden and Holtslag (1985)<ref name="VUH85">Van Ulden AP & Holtslag AAM (1985) Estimation of atmospheric boundary layer parameters for boundary layer applications. J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 1196-1207.</ref>
 
*Heat - Dyer (1974)<ref name="D74"/> modified by Högstrom (1988)<ref name="H88"/>
 
|-
 
| 3  ||
 
*Momentum: Campbell and Norman (Eq 7.27, Pg97) <ref name="CNstab">Campbell GS & Norman JM (1998) Introduction to Environmental Biophysics. Springer Science, US.</ref>
 
*Heat - unstable: Campbell and Norman<ref name="CNstab"/>; stable: Dyer (1974)<ref name="D74"/> modified by Högstrom (1988)<ref name="H88"/>
 
|-
 
| 4  ||
 
*Momentum: Businger et al. (1971)<ref name="B71">Businger JA, Wyngaard JC, Izumi Y & Bradley EF (1971) Flux-Profile Relationships in the Atmospheric Surface Layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 181–189.</ref> modified by Högstrom (1988)<ref name="H88"/>
 
*Heat: Businger et al. (1971)<ref name="B71"/> modified by Högstrom (1988)<ref name="H88"/>
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="6"| RoughLenHeatMethod (previously RoughLen_heat)
 
! scope="row" rowspan="6"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Determines method for calculating roughness length for heat.
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 1  ||
 
*Uses value of 0.1z0m.
 
|-
 
| 2 ||
 
*'''Recommended'''
 
*Calculated according to Kawai et al. (2009)<ref name="Ka09">Kawai T, Ridwan MK & Kanda M (2009) Evaluation of the simple urban energy balance model using selected data from 1-yr flux observations at two cities. J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim. 48, 693-715.</ref>.
 
|-
 
| 3 ||
 
*Calculated according to Voogt and Grimmond (2000)<ref name="VG00">Voogt JA & Grimmond CSB (2000) Modeling surface sensible heat flux using surface radiative temperatures in a simple urban terrain. J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1679-1699.</ref>.
 
|-
 
| 4 ||
 
*Calculated according to Kanda et al. (2007)<ref name="Ka07">Kanda M, Kanega M, Kawai T, Moriwaki R & Sugawara H (2007). Roughness lengths for momentum and heat derived from outdoor urban scale models. J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim. 46, 1067-1079.</ref>.
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="5"| RoughLenMomMethod (previously z0_method)
 
! scope="row" rowspan="5"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Determines how aerodynamic roughness length (z0m) and zero displacement height (zdm) are calculated.
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 1  ||
 
*Values specified in [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]] are used. Note that [http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP UMEP] provides tools to calculate these]. See [https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10546-017-0248-z Kent et al. (2017a)] for recommendations on methods. Kent et al. (2017b) have developed a method to include vegetation which is also avaialble within UMEP.
 
 
*Kent CW, CSB Grimmond, J Barlow, D Gatey, S Kotthaus, F Lindberg, CH Halios 2017a: Evaluation of urban local-scale aerodynamic parameters: implications for the vertical profile of wind and source areas Boundary Layer Meteorology 164,183–213 doi: 10.1007/s10546-017-0248-z
 
*Kent CW, S Grimmond, D Gatey 2017b: Aerodynamic roughness parameters in cities: inclusion of vegetation Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2017.07.016
 
 
|-
 
| 2  ||
 
*z0m and zd are calculated using 'rule of thumb' (Grimmond and Oke 1999<ref name="GO99">Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (1999) Aerodynamic properties of urban areas derived from analysis of surface form. J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 1262-1292.</ref>) using mean building and tree height specified in [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]].
 
*z0m and zd are adjusted with time to account for seasonal variation in porosity of deciduous trees.
 
|-
 
| 3  ||
 
*z0m and zd are calculated based on the MacDonald et al. (1998)<ref name="Mc98">MacDonald RW, Griffiths RF & Hall DJ (1998) An improved method for estimation of surface roughness of obstacle arrays. Atmos. Env. 32, 1857-1864.</ref> method using mean building and tree heights, plan area fraction and frontal areal index specified in [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]].
 
*z0m and zd are adjusted with time to account for seasonal variation in porosity of deciduous trees.
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="5"| SMDMethod (previously SMD_Choice)
 
! scope="row" rowspan="5"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Determines method for calculating soil moisture deficit (SMD).
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 0  ||
 
*'''Recommended'''
 
*SMD modelled using parameters specified in [[#SUEWS_Soil.txt|SUEWS_Soil.txt]].
 
|-
 
| 1 ||
 
*'''Not currently implemented - do not use!'''
 
*Observed SM provided in the meteorological forcing file is used.
 
*Data are provided as ''volumetric'' soil moisture content. Metadata must be provided in [[#SUEWS_Soil.txt|SUEWS_Soil.txt]].
 
|-
 
| 2 ||
 
*'''Not currently implemented - do not use!'''
 
*Observed SM provided in the meteorological forcing file is used.
 
*Data are provided as ''gravimetric'' soil moisture content. Metadata must be provided in [[#SUEWS_Soil.txt|SUEWS_Soil.txt]].
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| WaterUseMethod (previously WUChoice)
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Defines how external water use is calculated.
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 0  ||
 
External water use modelled using parameters specified in [[#SUEWS_Irrigation.txt|SUEWS_Irrigation.txt]].
 
|-
 
| 1  ||
 
Observations of external water use provided in the meteorological forcing file are used.
 
|-
 
 
| colspan="4" style="text-align:left" | ''File-related options''
 
|-
 
! scope="row"| FileCode
 
! scope="row"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Two-letter site identification code (e.g. He, Sc, Kc).
 
|-
 
! scope="row"| FileInputPath
 
! scope="row"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Input directory.
 
|-
 
! scope="row"| FileOutputPath
 
! scope="row"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Output directory.
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| MultipleMetFiles
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Specifies whether one single meteorological forcing file is used for all grids or a separate met file is provided for each grid.
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 0  ||
 
*Single meteorological forcing file used for all grids.
 
*No grid number should appear in the file name.
 
|-
 
| 1  ||
 
*Separate meteorological forcing files used for each grid.
 
*The grid number should appear in the file name.
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| MultipleInitFiles
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Specifies whether one single initial conditions file is used for all grids at the start of the run or a separate initial conditions file is provided for each grid.
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 0  ||
 
*Single initial conditions file used for all grids.
 
*No grid number should appear in the file name.
 
|-
 
| 1  ||
 
*Separate initial conditions files used for each grid.
 
*The grid number should appear in the file name.
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| MultipleESTMFiles
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| O
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Specifies whether one single ESTM forcing file is used for all grids or a separate file is provided for each grid.
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 0  ||
 
*Single ESTM forcing file used for all grids.
 
*No grid number should appear in the file name.
 
|-
 
| 1  ||
 
*Separate ESTM forcing files used for each grid.
 
*The grid number should appear in the file name.
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| KeepTstepFilesIn
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| O
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Specifies whether input meteorological forcing files at the resolution of the model time step should be saved.
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 0  ||
 
*Meteorological forcing files at model time step are not written out. This is the default option
 
*Recommended to reduce processing time and save disk space as (e.g. 5-min) files can be large.
 
|-
 
| 1  ||
 
*Meteorological forcing files at model time step are written out.
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| KeepTstepFilesOut
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| O
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Specifies whether output meteorological forcing files at the resolution of the model time step should be saved.
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 0  ||
 
*Output files at model time are not saved. This is the default option.
 
*Recommended to save disk space as (e.g. 5-min) files can be large.
 
|-
 
| 1  ||
 
*Output files at model time step are written out.
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="5"| WriteOutOption
 
! scope="row" rowspan="5"| O
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Specifies which variables are written in the output files.
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 0  ||
 
*All (except snow-related) output variables written. This is the default option.
 
|-
 
| 1  ||
 
*All (including snow-related) output variables written.
 
|-
 
| 2  ||
 
*Writes out a minimal set of output variables (use this to save space or if information about the different surfaces is not required).
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| SuppressWarnings
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| O
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Controls whether the warnings.txt file is written or not.   
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 0  ||
 
*The warnings.txt file is written. This is the default option.
 
|-
 
| 1  ||
 
*No warnings.txt file is written. May be useful for large model runs as this file can grow large.
 
|-
 
 
| colspan="4" style="text-align:left" | ''Time-related options''
 
|-
 
! scope="row"| Tstep
 
! scope="row"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Specifies the model time step [s]. A value of 300 s (5 min) is strongly recommended. The time step cannot be less than 1 min or greater than 10 min, and must be a whole number of minutes that divide into an hour (i.e. options are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10 min or 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 600 s). 
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row"| ResolutionFilesIn
 
! scope="row"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Specifies the resolution of the input files [s] which SUEWS will disaggregate to the model time step. 1800 s for 30 min or 3600 s for 60 min are recommended. (N.B. if ResolutionFilesIn is not provided, SUEWS assumes ResolutionFilesIn = Tstep.) 
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row"| ResolutionFilesInESTM
 
! scope="row"| O
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Specifies the resolution of the ESTM input files [s] which SUEWS will disaggregate to the model time step. 
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row"| ResolutionFilesOut
 
! scope="row"| R
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Specifies the resolution of the output files [s]. 1800 s for 30 min or 3600 s for 60 min are recommended. 
 
|-
 
 
| colspan="4" style="text-align:left" | ''Options related to disaggregation of input data''
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="5"| DisaggMethod
 
! scope="row" rowspan="5"| O
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Specifies how meteorological variables in the input file (except rain and snow) are disaggregated to the model time step. '''Wind direction is not currently downscaled so non -999 values will cause an error.'''
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 1  ||
 
Linear downscaling of averages for all variables, additional zenith check is used for Kdown. This is the default option.
 
|-
 
| 2  ||
 
Linear downscaling of instantaneous values for all variables, additional zenith check is used for Kdown.
 
|-
 
| 3  ||
 
WFDEI setting: average Kdown (with additional zenith check); instantaneous for Tair, RH, pres and U. (N.B. WFDEI actually provides Q not RH)
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| KdownZen
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| O
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Can be used to switch off zenith checking in Kdown disaggregation. Note that the zenith calculation requires location information obtained from SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt. If a single met file is used for all grids, the zenith is calculated for the first grid and the disaggregated data is then applied for all grids. 
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 0  ||
 
No zenith angle check is applied.
 
|-
 
| 1  ||
 
Disaggregated Kdown is set to zero when zenith angle exceeds 90 degrees (i.e. sun below horizon) and redistributed over the day. This is the default option.
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="5"| RainDisaggMethod
 
! scope="row" rowspan="5"| O
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Specifies how rain in the meteorological forcing file are disaggregated to the model time step. '''If present in the original met forcing file, snow is currently disaggregated in the same way as rainfall.''' 
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 100  ||
 
Rainfall is evenly distributed among all subintervals in a rainy interval. This is the default option.
 
|-
 
| 101  ||
 
Rainfall is evenly distributed among among '''RainAmongN''' subintervals in a rainy interval – also requires RainAmongN to be set.
 
|-
 
| 102  ||
 
Rainfall is evenly distributed among among '''RainAmongN''' subintervals in a rainy interval for different intensity bins – also requires MultRainAmongN and MultRainAmongNUpperI to be set.
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row"| RainAmongN
 
! scope="row"| O
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Specifies the number of subintervals (of length tt) over which to distribute rainfall in each interval (of length TT). Must be an integer value. Use with RainDisaggMethod = 101. 
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row"| MultRainAmongN
 
! scope="row"| O
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Specifies the number of subintervals (of length tt) over which to distribute rainfall in each interval (of length TT) for up to 5 intensity bins. Must take integer values. Use with RainDisaggMethod = 102. 
 
e.g. MultRainAmongN(1) = 5,  MultRainAmongN(2) = 8, MultRainAmongN(3) = 12 
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row"| MultRainAmongNUpperI
 
! scope="row"| O
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Specifies upper limit for each intensity bin to apply MultRainAmongN. Any intensities above the highest specified intensity will use the last MultRainAmongN value and write a warning to warnings.txt. Use with RainDisaggMethod = 102. 
 
e.g. MultRainAmongNUpperI(1) = 0.5,  MultRainAmongNUpperI(2) = 2.0, MultRainAmongNUpperI(3) = 50.0 
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| DisaggMethodESTM
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| O
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Specifies how ESTM-related temperatures in the input file are disaggregated to the model time step.   
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 1  ||
 
Linear downscaling of averages.
 
|-
 
| 2  ||
 
Linear downscaling of instantaneous values.
 
|-
 
 
 
| colspan="4" style="text-align:left" | ''netCDF-related options''
 
'''N.B.: This feature is NOT enabled in the public release due to the dependency of netCDF library.
 
 
Please contact the development team for assistance in enabling this feature if this feature is needed: [https://www.lists.reading.ac.uk/mailman/listinfo/met-suews SUEWS mail list]
 
|-
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| ncMode
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4"| O
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Determine if the output files should be written in netCDF format.
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
| 0  ||
 
*Output files are kept as plain text files (i.e., .txt).
 
|-
 
| 1  ||
 
*Output files will be written in netCDF format (i.e., .nc).
 
|-
 
! scope="row"| nRow
 
! scope="row"| O
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Number of rows (e.g., 36) in the output layout (only applicable when ncMode=1). 
 
|-
 
! scope="row"| nCol
 
! scope="row"| O
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left"| Number of columns (e.g., 47) in the output layout (only applicable when ncMode=1). 
 
|-
 
 
|}
 
 
===SUEWS_SiteInfo.xlsm ===
 
The following text files provide SUEWS with information about the study area. These text files are stored as worksheets in '''SUEWS_SiteInfo.xlsm''' and can be either edited using Excel and then generated using the macro, or edited directly (see [[#Data Entry|Data Entry]]). Please note this file is subject to possible changes from version to version due to new features, modifications, etc. Please be aware of using the correct copy of this worksheet that are always shipped with the SUEWS public release.
 
 
<!--T:90-->
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Use
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|MU ||Parameters which must be supplied and must be specific for the site/grid being run.
 
|-
 
|MD ||Parameters which must be supplied and must be specific for the site/grid being run (but default values may be ok if these values are not known specifically for the site).
 
|-
 
|O ||Parameters that are optional, depending on the model settings in RunControl. Set any parameters that are not used/not known to ‘-999’.
 
|-
 
|L ||Codes that are used to link between the input files.  These codes are required but their values are completely arbitrary, providing that they link the input files in the correct way. The user should choose these codes, bearing in mind that the codes they match up with in column 1 of the corresponding input file must be unique within that file. Codes must be integers. Note that the codes must match up with column 1 of the corresponding input file, even if those parameters are not used (in which case set all columns except column 1 to ‘-999’ in the corresponding input file), otherwise the model run will fail.
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
====SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt==== <!--T:89-->
 
For each year and each grid, site specific surface cover information and other input parameters is provided to SUEWS by '''SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt'''. The model currently requires a new row for each year of the model run. All rows in this file (before the two rows of '-9') will be read by the model and run. In this file the '''column order is important'''. '!' can be used to indicate comments in the file. Comments are not read by the programme so they can be used by the user to provide notes for their interpretation of the contents. This is strongly recommended.
 
 
<!--T:92-->
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!No.
 
!Use
 
!Column name
 
!Example
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|1 ||MU ||Grid ||1 ||Grid number (any integer 0-2,147,483,647 (largest 4-byte integer)) identifying the current grid.
 
*Grid numbers do not need to be consecutive and do not need to start at a particular value.
 
*Each grid must have a unique grid number.
 
*All grids must be present for all years.
 
*These grid numbers are referred to in GridConnections (columns 64-79) ('''N.B. GridConnections not currently implemented!''')
 
The two last lines in this column must read '-9' to indicate that the last lines have been reached (using two lines allows differences in computer file savings to be dealt with).
 
|-
 
|2 ||MU ||Year ||2011 ||Year [YYYY]
 
Years must be continuous.
 
If running multiple years, ensure the rows in SiteSelect.txt are arranged so that all grids for a particular year appear on consecutive lines (rather than grouping all years together for a particular grid).
 
|-
 
|3 ||MU ||StartDLS ||86 ||Start of the day light savings [DOY]
 
See section on [[#Day Light Savings|Day Light Savings]].
 
|-
 
|4 ||MU ||EndDLS ||303 ||End of the day light savings [DOY]
 
See section on [[#Day Light Savings|Day Light Savings]].
 
|-
 
|5 ||MU ||lat ||60.00 ||Latitude for the centre of the grid [decimal degrees]
 
*Use coordinate system WGS84.
 
*Positive values are northern hemisphere (negative southern hemisphere).
 
*Used in radiation calculations.
 
*Note, if the total modelled area is small the latitude and longitude could be the same for each grid but small differences in radiation will not be determined. If you are defining the latitude and longitude differently between grids make certain that you provide enough decimal places.
 
|-
 
|6 ||MU ||lng ||-18.20 ||Longitude for the centre of the grid [decimal degrees]
 
*Use coordinate system WGS84.
 
*For compatibility with GIS, negative values are to the west, positive values are to the east (e.g. Vancouver = -123.12; Shanghai = 121.47) '''Note this is a change of sign convention between v2016a and v2017a'''
 
*See latitude for more details.
 
|-
 
|7 ||MU ||Timezone ||0 ||Time zone [h] for site relative to UTC (east is positive). This should be set according to the times given in the meteorological forcing file(s).
 
|-
 
|8 ||MU ||SurfaceArea ||75.3 ||Area of the grid [ha].
 
|-
 
|9 ||MU ||Alt ||25.0 ||Altitude [m]
 
Mean topographic height above sea-level.
 
*Used for both the radiation and water flow between grids. ('''N.B. water flow between grids not currently implemented.''')
 
|-
 
|10 ||MU ||z ||20.5 ||Height [m] of the meteorological forcing data. The most important height is that of the wind speed measurement.
 
* z must be greater than the displacement height.
 
* Forcing data should be representative of the local-scale, i.e. above the height of the roughness elements.
 
|-
 
|11 ||MD ||id ||1 ||Day [DOY]
 
Not used: set to 1 in this version.
 
|-
 
|12 ||MD ||ih ||0 ||Hour [H]
 
Not used: set to 0 in this version.
 
|-
 
|13 ||MD ||imin ||0 ||Minute [M]
 
Not used: set to 0 in this version.
 
|-
 
|14 ||MU ||Fr_Paved ||0.20 ||Surface cover fraction of paved surfaces [-]
 
Areal cover fraction of paved surfaces (roads, pavements, car parks).
 
e.g. 20% of the grid is covered with paved surfaces.
 
*'''Columns 14 to 20 must sum to 1'''.
 
|-
 
|15 ||MU ||Fr_Bldgs ||0.20 ||Surface cover fraction of buildings [-]
 
|-
 
|16 ||MU ||Fr_EveTr ||0.10 ||Surface cover fraction of evergreen trees and shrubs [-]
 
|-
 
|17 ||MU ||Fr_DecTr ||0.10 ||Surface cover fraction of deciduous trees and shrubs [-]
 
|-
 
|18 ||MU ||Fr_Grass ||0.30 ||Surface cover fraction of grass [-]
 
|-
 
|19 ||MU ||Fr_Bsoil ||0.05 ||Surface cover fraction of bare soil or unmanaged land [-]
 
|-
 
|20 ||MU ||Fr_Water ||0.05 ||Surface cover fraction of open water [-]
 
(e.g. river, lakes, ponds, swimming pools)
 
|-
 
|21 ||MU ||IrrFr_EveTr ||0.50 ||Fraction of evergreen trees that are irrigated [-]
 
e.g. 50% of the evergreen trees/shrubs are irrigated
 
|-
 
|22 ||MU ||IrrFr_DecTr ||0.20 ||Fraction of deciduous trees that are irrigated [-]
 
|-
 
|23 ||MU ||IrrFr_Grass ||0.70 ||Fraction of grass that is irrigated [-]
 
|-
 
|24 ||MU ||H_Bldgs ||10 ||Mean building height [m]
 
|-
 
|25 ||MU ||H_EveTr ||15 ||Mean height of evergreen trees [m]
 
|-
 
|26 ||MU ||H_DecTr ||15 ||Mean height of deciduous trees [m]
 
|-
 
|27 ||O ||z0 ||0.6 ||Roughness length for momentum [m]
 
Value supplied here is used if RoughLenMomMethod = 1 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]]; otherwise set to '-999' and a value will be calculated by the model (RoughLenMomMethod = 2, 3).
 
|-
 
|28 ||O ||zd ||1.5 ||Zero-plane displacement [m]
 
Value supplied here is used if RoughLenMomMethod = 1 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]]; otherwise set to '-999' and a value will be calculated by the model (RoughLenMomMethod = 2, 3).
 
|-
 
|29 ||O ||FAI_Bldgs ||0.1 ||Frontal area index for buildings [-]
 
Required if RoughLenMomMethod = 3 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]].
 
|-
 
|30 ||O ||FAI_EveTr ||0.2 ||Frontal area index for evergreen trees [-]
 
Required if RoughLenMomMethod = 3 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]].
 
|-
 
|31 ||O ||FAI_DecTr ||0.2 ||Frontal area index for deciduous trees [-]
 
Required if RoughLenMomMethod = 3 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]].
 
|-
 
|32 ||O ||PopDensDay ||30.7 ||Daytime population density (i.e. workers, tourists) [people ha<sup>-1</sup>]
 
Population density is required if AnthropHeatMethod = 2 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]]. The model will use the average of daytime and night-time population densities, unless only one is provided. If daytime population density is unknown, set to -999.
 
|-
 
|33 ||O ||PopDensNight ||10.2 ||Night-time population density (i.e. residents) [people ha<sup>-1</sup>]
 
Population density is required if AnthropHeatMethod = 2 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]]. The model will use the average of daytime and night-time population densities, unless only one is provided. If night-time population density is unknown, set to -999.
 
|-
 
|34 ||O ||TrafficRate ||  || Traffic rate [veh km m-2 s-1]
 
Can be used for CO2 flux calculation. '''Do not use in v2017a - set to -999'''
 
|-
 
|35 ||O ||BuildEnergyUse ||  ||Building energy use [W m-2]
 
Can be used for CO2 flux calculation. '''Do not use in v2017a - set to -999'''
 
|-
 
|36 ||L ||Code_Paved ||331 ||Code for Paved surface characteristics
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_NonVeg.txt, which contains the attributes describing paved areas in this grid for this year.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_NonVeg.txt.
 
e.g. 331 means use the characteristics specified in the row of input file SUEWS_NonVeg.txt which has 331 in column 1 (Code).
 
|-
 
|37 ||L ||Code_Bldgs ||332 ||Code for Bldgs surface characteristics
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_NonVeg.txt, which contains the attributes describing buildings in this grid for this year.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_NonVeg.txt.
 
|-
 
|38 ||L ||Code_EveTr ||331 ||Code for EveTr surface characteristics
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Veg.txt, which contains the attributes describing evergreen trees and shrubs in this grid for this year.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Veg.txt.
 
|-
 
|39 ||L ||Code_DecTr ||332 ||Code for DecTr surface characteristics
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Veg.txt, which contains the attributes describing deciduous trees and shrubs in this grid for this year.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Veg.txt.
 
|-
 
|40 ||L ||Code_Grass ||333 ||Code for Grass surface characteristics
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Veg.txt, which contains the attributes describing grass surfaces in this grid for this year.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Veg.txt.
 
|-
 
|41 ||L ||Code_Bsoil ||333 ||Code for BSoil surface characteristics
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_NonVeg.txt, which contains the attributes describing bare soil in this grid for this year.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_NonVeg.txt.
 
|-
 
|42 ||L ||Code_Water ||331 ||Code for Water surface characteristics
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Water.txt, which contains the attributes describing open water in this grid for this year.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Water.txt.
 
|-
 
|43 ||MD ||LUMPS_DrRate ||0.25 ||Drainage rate of bucket for LUMPS [mm h<sup>-1</sup>]
 
Used for LUMPS surface wetness control.
 
Default recommended value of 0.25 mm h<sup>-1</sup> from Loridan et al. (2011)<ref name="L2011"/>.
 
|-
 
|44 ||MD ||LUMPS_Cover ||1 ||Limit when surface totally covered with water [mm]
 
Used for LUMPS surface wetness control.
 
Default recommended value of 1 mm from Loridan et al. (2011)<ref name="L2011"/>.
 
|-
 
|45 ||MD ||LUMPS_MaxRes ||10 ||Maximum water bucket reservoir [mm]
 
Used for LUMPS surface wetness control.
 
Default recommended value of 10 mm from Loridan et al. (2011)<ref name="L2011"/>.
 
|-
 
|46 ||MD ||NARP_Trans ||1 ||Atmospheric transmissivity for NARP [-]
 
Value must in the range 0-1.
 
Default recommended value of 1.
 
|-
 
|47 ||L ||CondCode ||33 ||Code for surface conductance parameters
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Conductance.txt, which contains the parameters for the Jarvis (1976) parameterisation of surface conductance.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Conductance.txt.
 
e.g. 33 means use the characteristics specified in the row of input file SUEWS_Conductance.txt which has 33 in column 1 (Code).
 
|-
 
|48 ||L ||SnowCode ||33 ||Code for snow surface characteristics
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Snow.txt, which contains the attributes describing snow surfaces in this grid for this year.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Snow.txt.
 
|-
 
|49 ||L ||SnowClearingProfWD ||1 ||Code for snow clearing profile (weekdays)
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.
 
e.g. 1 means use the characteristics specified in the row of input file SUEWS_Profiles.txt which has 1 in column 1 (Code).
 
|-
 
|50 ||L ||SnowClearingProfWE ||1 ||Code for snow clearing profile (weekends)
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.
 
e.g. 1 means use the characteristics specified in the row of input file SUEWS_Profiles.txt which has 1 in column 1 (Code).
 
Providing the same code for SnowClearingProfWD and SnowClearingProfWE would link to the same row in SUEWS_Profiles.txt, i.e. the same profile would be used for weekdays and weekends.
 
|-
 
|51 ||L ||AnthropogenicCode ||33 ||Code for modelling anthropogenic heat flux
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_AnthropogenicHeat.txt, which contains the model coefficients for estimation of the anthropogenic heat flux (used if AnthropHeatChoice = 1, 2 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]]).
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_AnthropogenicHeat.txt.
 
|-
 
|52 ||L ||EnergyUseProfWD ||333 ||Code for energy use profile (weekdays)
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt. Look the codes
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.
 
|-
 
|53 ||L ||EnergyUseProfWE ||334 ||Code for energy use profile (weekends)
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.
 
|-
 
|54 ||L ||ActivityProfWD ||333 ||Code for human activity profile (weekdays)
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt. Look the codes
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.
 
Used for CO2 flux calculation - '''not used in v2017a'''
 
|-
 
|55 ||L ||ActivityProfWE ||333 ||Code for human activity profile (weekends)
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt. Look the codes
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.
 
Used for CO2 flux calculation - '''not used in v2017a'''
 
|-
 
|56 ||L ||IrrigationCode ||33 ||Code for modelling irrigation
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Irrigation.txt, which contains the model coefficients for estimation of the water use (used if WU_Choice = 0 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]]).
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Irrigation.txt.
 
|-
 
|57 ||L ||WaterUseProfManuWD ||335 ||Code for water use profile (manual irrigation, weekdays)
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.
 
|-
 
|58 ||L ||WaterUseProfManuWE ||336 ||Code for water use profile (manual irrigation, weekends)
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.
 
|-
 
|59 ||L ||WaterUseProfAutoWD ||337 ||Code for water use profile (automatic irrigation, weekdays)
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.
 
|-
 
|60 ||L ||WaterUseProfAutoWE ||338 ||Code for water use profile (automatic irrigation, weekends)
 
Provides the link to column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Profiles.txt.
 
|-
 
|61 ||MD  ||FlowChange ||0 ||Difference in input and output flows for water surface [mm h<sup>-1</sup>]
 
Used to indicate river or stream flow through the grid.
 
'''Currently not fully tested!'''
 
|-
 
|62 ||MD,MU ||RunoffToWater ||0.1 ||Fraction of above-ground runoff flowing to water surface during flooding [-]
 
Value must be in the range 0-1.
 
Fraction of above-ground runoff that can flow to the water surface in the case of flooding.
 
|-
 
|63 ||MD,MU ||PipeCapacity ||100 ||Storage capacity of pipes [mm]
 
Runoff amounting to less than the value specified here is assumed to be removed by pipes.
 
|-
 
|64 ||MD,MU ||GridConnection1of8 ||2 ||Number of the grid where water can flow to [-]
 
*The next 8 pairs of columns specify the water flow between grids.
 
*The first column of each pair specifies the grid that the water flows to (from the current grid, column 1); the second column of each pair specifies the fraction of water that flow to that grid.
 
*The fraction (i.e. amount) of water transferred may be estimated based on elevation, the length of connecting surface between grids, presence of walls, etc.
 
*Water cannot flow from the current grid to the same grid, so the grid number here must be different to the grid number in column 1. Water can flow to a maximum of 8 other grids.
 
*If there is no water flow between grids, or a single grid is run, set to 0.
 
*See section on [[#Grid Connections|Grid Connections]]
 
'''Not currently implemented!''' 
 
|-
 
|65 ||MD,MU ||Fraction1of8 ||0.2 ||Fraction of water that can flow to the grid specified in previous column [-]
 
|-
 
|66 ||MD,MU ||GridConnection2of8 ||0 ||Number of the grid where water can flow to
 
|-
 
|67 ||MD,MU ||Fraction2of8 ||0 ||Fraction of water that can flow to the grid specified in previous column [-]
 
|-
 
|68 ||MD,MU ||GridConnection3of8 ||0 ||Number of the grid where water can flow to
 
|-
 
|69 ||MD,MU ||Fraction3of8 ||0 ||Fraction of water that can flow to the grid specified in previous column [-]
 
|-
 
|70 ||MD,MU ||GridConnection4of8 ||0 ||Number of the grid where water can flow to
 
|-
 
|71 ||MD,MU ||Fraction4of8 ||0 ||Fraction of water that can flow to the grid specified in previous column [-]
 
|-
 
|72 ||MD,MU ||GridConnection5of8 ||0 ||Number of the grid where water can flow to
 
|-
 
|73 ||MD,MU ||Fraction5of8 ||0 ||Fraction of water that can flow to the grid specified in previous column [-]
 
|-
 
|74 ||MD,MU ||GridConnection6of8 ||0 ||Number of the grid where water can flow to
 
|-
 
|75 ||MD,MU ||Fraction6of8 ||0 ||Fraction of water that can flow to the grid specified in previous column [-]
 
|-
 
|76 ||MD,MU ||GridConnection7of8 ||0 ||Number of the grid where water can flow to
 
|-
 
|77 ||MD,MU ||Fraction7of8 ||0 ||Fraction of water that can flow to the grid specified in previous column [-]
 
|-
 
|78 ||MD,MU ||GridConnection8of8 ||0 ||Number of the grid where water can flow to
 
|-
 
|79 ||MD,MU ||Fraction8of8 ||0 ||Fraction of water that can flow to the grid specified in previous column [-]
 
|-
 
|80 ||L ||WithinGridPavedCode ||331 ||Code that links to the fraction of water that flows from Paved surfaces to surfaces in columns 2-10 of [[#SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt|SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.
 
|-
 
|81 ||L ||WithinGridBldgsCode ||332 ||Code that links to the fraction of water that flows from Bldgs surfaces to surfaces in columns 2-10 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.
 
|-
 
|82 ||L ||WithinGridEveTrCode ||333 ||Code that links to the fraction of water that flows from EveTr surfaces to surfaces in columns 2-10 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.
 
|-
 
|83 ||L ||WithinGridDecTrCode ||334 ||Code that links to the fraction of water that flows from DecTr surfaces to surfaces in columns 2-10 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.
 
|-
 
|84 ||L ||WithinGridGrassCode ||335 ||Code that links to the fraction of water that flows from Grass surfaces to surfaces in columns 2-10 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.
 
|-
 
|85 ||L ||WithinGridBSoilCode ||336 ||Code that links to the fraction of water that flows from BSoil surfaces to surfaces in columns 2-10 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.
 
|-
 
|86 ||L ||WithinGridWaterCode ||337 ||Code that links to the fraction of water that flows from Water surfaces to surfaces in columns 2-10 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt.
 
|-
 
 
|87 ||MU ||AreaWall || 1.08 || Area of wall within grid (needed for ESTM calculation).
 
|-
 
 
|88 ||MU ||Fr_ESTMClass_Paved1 || || Fraction of paved surface classified as ESTM class 1
 
* Columns 88-90 must add up to 1
 
|-
 
|89 ||MU ||Fr_ESTMClass_Paved2 || || Fraction of paved surface classified as ESTM class 2
 
* Columns 88-90 must add up to 1
 
|-
 
|90 ||MU ||Fr_ESTMClass_Paved3 || || Fraction of paved surface classified as ESTM class 3
 
* Columns 88-90 must add up to 1
 
|-
 
|91 ||L ||Code_ESTMClass_Paved1 || || Code linking to [[#SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt]]
 
|-
 
|92 ||L ||Code_ESTMClass_Paved2 || || Code linking to [[#SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt]]
 
|-
 
|93 ||L ||Code_ESTMClass_Paved3 || || Code linking to [[#SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt]]
 
|-
 
 
|94 ||MU ||Fr_ESTMClass_Bldgs1 || || Fraction of building surface classified as ESTM class 1
 
* Columns 94-98 must add up to 1
 
|-
 
|95 ||MU ||Fr_ESTMClass_Bldgs2 || || Fraction of building surface classified as ESTM class 2
 
* Columns 94-98 must add up to 1
 
|-
 
|96 ||MU ||Fr_ESTMClass_Bldgs3 || || Fraction of building surface classified as ESTM class 3
 
* Columns 94-98 must add up to 1
 
|-
 
|97 ||MU ||Fr_ESTMClass_Bldgs4 || || Fraction of building surface classified as ESTM class 4
 
* Columns 94-98 must add up to 1
 
|-
 
|98 ||MU ||Fr_ESTMClass_Bldgs5 || || Fraction of building surface classified as ESTM class 5
 
* Columns 94-98 must add up to 1
 
|-
 
|99 ||L ||Code_ESTMClass_Bldgs1 || || Code linking to [[#SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt]]
 
|-
 
|100 ||L ||Code_ESTMClass_Bldgs2 || || Code linking to [[#SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt]]
 
|-
 
|101 ||L ||Code_ESTMClass_Bldgs3 || || Code linking to [[#SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt]]
 
|-
 
|102 ||L ||Code_ESTMClass_Bldgs4 || || Code linking to [[#SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt]]
 
|-
 
|103 ||L ||Code_ESTMClass_Bldgs5 || || Code linking to [[#SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt]]
 
|-
 
 
|}
 
 
=====Day Light Savings (DLS)===== <!--T:101-->
 
The dates for DLS normally vary each year and country as they are often associated with a specific set of Sunday mornings at the beginning of summer and autumn. Note it is important to remember leap years. You can check http://www.timeanddate.com/time/dst/ for your city.
 
 
<!--T:102-->
 
If DLS does not occur give a start and end day immediately after it. Make certain the dummy dates are correct for the hemisphere:
 
for northern hemisphere, use: 180 181
 
for southern hemisphere, use:  365 1
 
 
<!--T:103-->
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Example:
 
! Year
 
!start of daylight savings 
 
!end of daylight savings
 
|-
 
| when running multiple years (in this case 2008 and 2009 in Canada)
 
|2008      ||      170||        240     
 
|-
 
|
 
|2009      ||      172        || 242
 
|-
 
 
|}
 
 
=====Grid Connections (water flow between grids)===== <!--T:105-->
 
 
'''N.B. not currently implemented''' - columns 64-79 of [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]] can be set to zero.
 
 
<!--T:107-->
 
This section gives an example of water flow between grids, calculated based on the relative elevation of the grids and length of the connecting surface between adjacent grids. For the square grids in the figure, water flow is assumed to be zero between diagonally adjacent grids, as the length of connecting surface linking the grids is very small. Model grids need not be square or the same size.
 
 
<!--T:108-->
 
The table gives example values for the grid connections part of [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]] for the grids shown in the figure. For each row, only water flowing out of the current grid is entered (e.g. water flows from 234 to 236 and 237, with a larger proportion of water flowing to 237 because of the greater length of connecting surface between 234 and 237 than between 234 and 236. No water is assumed to flow between 234 and 233 or 235 because there is no elevation difference between these grids. Grids 234 and 238 are at the same elevation and only connect at a point, so no water flows between them. Water enters grid 234 from grids 230, 231 and 232 as these are more elevated.
 
 
[[File:GridConnections_1.jpg|frame|
 
Example grid connections showing water flow between grids. Arrows indicate the water flow in to and out of grid 234, but note that only only water flowing out of each grid is entered in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.|none]]
 
 
<!--T:106-->
 
[[File:GridConnections_2_v2.jpg|frame|
 
Example values for the grid connections part of [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]] for the grids.|none]]
 
 
====SUEWS_NonVeg.txt==== <!--T:109-->
 
SUEWS_NonVeg.txt specifies the characteristics for the non-vegetated surface cover types (Paved, Bldgs, BSoil) by linking codes in column 1 of SUEWS_NonVeg.txt to the codes specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt (Code_Paved, Code_Bldgs, Code_BSoil). Each row should correspond to a particular surface type.
 
For suggestions on how to complete this table, see: [http://urban-climate.net/umep/TypicalValues#Typical_Values Typical Values].
 
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
!No.
 
!Use
 
!Column name
 
!Example
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|1 ||L ||Code ||
 
331
 
-----
 
332
 
-----
 
333
 
|Code linking to SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt for paved surfaces (Code_Paved), buildings (Code_Bldgs) and bare soil surfaces (Code_BSoil).
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match codes specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.
 
|-
 
|2 ||MU ||AlbedoMin ||0-1 ||Minumum albedo of this surface [-]
 
*Effective surface albedo (middle of the day value) for wintertime (not including snow).
 
*View factors should be taken into account.
 
*Not currently used for non-vegetated surfaces – set the same as AlbedoMax.
 
|-
 
|3 ||MU ||AlbedoMax ||0-1 ||Maximum albedo of this surface [-]
 
*Effective surface albedo (middle of the day value) for summertime.
 
*View factors should be taken into account.
 
|-
 
|4 ||MU ||Emissivity ||0-1 ||Emissivity of this surface [-]
 
*Effective surface emissivity.
 
*View factors should be taken into account.
 
|-
 
|5 ||MD ||StorageMin || ||Minimum water storage capacity of this surface [mm]
 
*Minimum water storage capacity for upper surfaces (i.e. canopy).
 
*Min/max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-on/leaf-off differences for vegetated surfaces).
 
*Not currently used for non-vegetated surfaces - set the same as StorageMax.
 
{|
 
|-
 
! colspan="2" | Example values [mm]
 
!
 
|-
 
|0.48 ||Paved
 
|-
 
|0.25 ||Bldgs
 
|-
 
|0.80 ||BSoil
 
|}
 
|-
 
|6 ||MD ||StorageMax || ||Maximum water storage capacity of this surface [mm]
 
*Maximum water storage capacity for upper surfaces (i.e. canopy)
 
*Min and max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-on/leaf-off differences for vegetated surfaces).
 
*Not currently used for non-vegetated surfaces - set the same as StorageMin.
 
{|
 
|-
 
! colspan="2" | Example values [mm]
 
!
 
|-
 
|0.48 ||Paved
 
|-
 
|0.25 ||Bldgs
 
|-
 
|0.80 ||BSoil
 
|}
 
|-
 
|7 ||MD ||WetThreshold || ||Threshold for a completely wet surface [mm]
 
*Depth of water which determines whether evaporation occurs from a partially wet or completely wet surface.
 
{|
 
|-
 
! colspan="2" | Example values [mm]
 
!
 
|-
 
|0.6 ||Paved
 
|-
 
|0.6 ||Bldgs
 
|-
 
|1.0 ||BSoil
 
|}
 
|-
 
|8 ||MD ||StateLimit || ||Upper limit to the surface state [mm]
 
*'''Currently only used for the water surface'''
 
|-
 
|9 ||MD ||DrainageEq || 1, 2, 3 ||Drainage equation to use for this surface.
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align: left" | Options
 
|-
 
|1 || Falk and Niemczynowicz (1978)<ref name="FN78">Falk J & Niemczynowicz J, (1978) Characteristics of the above ground runoff in sewered
 
catchments, in Urban Storm Drainage, edited by Helliwell PR, Pentech, London</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|2 || Halldin et al. (1979)<ref name="Ha79">Halldin S, Grip H & Perttu K. (1979) Model for energy exchange of a pine forest canopy. In: Halldin S (Ed.), Comparison of Forest Water and Energy Exchange Models. International Society of Ecological Modeling</ref> (Rutter eqn corrected for c=0, see Calder & Wright (1986)<ref name="CW86">Calder IR and Wright IR (1986) Gamma Ray Attenuation Studies of Interception From Sitka Spruce: Some Evidence for an Additional Transport Mechanism. Water Resour. Res., 22(3), 409–417.</ref>) || Recommended<ref name="G91"/> for BSoil
 
|-
 
|3 || Falk and Niemczynowicz (1978)<ref name="FN78"/> || Recommended<ref name="G91"/> for Paved and Bldgs
 
|}
 
*Coefficients are specified in the following two columns.
 
|-
 
|10 ||MD ||DrainageCoef1 || ||Coefficient for drainage equation [units vary according to DrainageEq specified in previous column]
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
! colspan="2" style="text-align: left" | Example values
 
! DrainageEq
 
!
 
|-
 
|10 ||Coefficient D0 [mm h<sup>-1</sup>] || 3 || Recommended<ref name="G91"/> for Paved and Bldgs
 
|-
 
|0.013 ||Coefficient D0  [mm h<sup>-1</sup>] || 2 || Recommended<ref name="G91"/> for BSoil
 
|}
 
|-
 
|11 ||MD ||DrainageCoef2 || || Coefficient for drainage equation [units vary according to DrainageEq specified in previous column]
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
! colspan="2" style="text-align: left" | Example values
 
! DrainageEq
 
!
 
|-
 
|3 ||Coefficient b [-] || 3 || Recommended<ref name="G91"/> for Paved and Bldgs
 
|-
 
|1.71 ||Coefficient b  [mm<sup>-1</sup>] || 2 || Recommended<ref name="G91"/> for BSoil
 
|}
 
|-
 
|12 ||L ||SoilTypeCode || ||Code for soil characteristics below this surface
 
Provides the link to column 1 of [[#SUEWS_Soil.txt|SUEWS_Soil.txt]], which contains the attributes describing sub-surface soil for this surface type.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Soil.txt.
 
|-
 
|13 ||O ||SnowLimPatch || ||Maximum SWE [mm]
 
Limit of snow water equivalent when the surface is fully covered with snow.
 
* Not needed if SnowUse = 0 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]].
 
{|
 
|-
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align: left" | Example values [mm]
 
!
 
|-
 
|190 ||Paved || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/>
 
|-
 
|190 ||Bldgs || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/>
 
|-
 
|190 ||BSoil || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/>
 
|}
 
|-
 
|14 ||O ||SnowLimRemove || ||SWE when snow is removed from this surface [mm]
 
Limit of snow water equivalent when snow is removed from paved surfaces and buildings
 
* Not needed if SnowUse = 0 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]].
 
*'''Currently not implemented for BSoil surface'''
 
{|
 
|-
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align: left" | Example values [mm]
 
!
 
|-
 
|40 ||Paved || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/>
 
|-
 
|100 ||Bldgs || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/>
 
|}
 
|-
 
|15 ||L ||OHMCode_SummerWet || ||Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during wet conditions in summer.
 
Links to [[#SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.
 
|-
 
|16 ||L ||OHMCode_SummerDry || ||Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during dry conditions in summer.
 
Links to [[#SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.
 
|-
 
|17 ||L ||OHMCode_WinterWet || ||Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during wet conditions in winter.
 
Links to [[#SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.
 
|-
 
|18 ||L ||OHMCode_WinterDry || ||Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during dry conditions in winter.
 
Links to [[#SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.
 
|-
 
|19 ||MD ||OHMThresh_SW ||10 ||Temperature threshold determining whether summer/winter OHM coefficients are applied [deg C]
 
If 5-day running mean air temperature is greater than or equal to this threshold, OHM coefficients for summertime are applied; otherwise coefficients for wintertime are applied.
 
|-
 
|20 ||MD ||OHMThresh_WD || 0.9 ||Soil moisture threshold determining whether wet/dry OHM coefficients are applied [-]
 
If soil moisture (as a proportion of maximum soil moisture capacity) exceeds this threshold for bare soil and vegetated surfaces, OHM coefficients for wet conditions are applied; otherwise coefficients for dry coefficients are applied. Note that OHM coefficients for wet conditions are applied if the surface is wet.
 
'''Not actually used for building and paved surfaces (as impervious).'''
 
|-
 
 
|21 ||L ||ESTMCode || ||Code for ESTM coefficients to use for this surface.
 
Links to [[#SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt.
 
*For paved and building surfaces, it is possible to specify multiple codes per grid (3 for paved, 5 for buildings) using [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]]. In this case, set ESTMCode here to zero.
 
|-
 
|22 ||MU ||AnOHM_Cp || || Volumetric heat capacity for this surface to use in AnOHM [J m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|23 ||MU ||AnOHM_Kk || || Thermal conductivity for this surface to use in AnOHM [W m K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|24 ||MU ||AnOHM_Ch || || Bulk transfer coefficient for this surface to use in AnOHM [-]
 
|-
 
 
|}
 
 
====SUEWS_Veg.txt==== <!--T:131-->
 
SUEWS_Veg.txt specifies the characteristics for the vegetated surface cover types (EveTr, DecTr, Grass) by linking codes in column 1 of SUEWS_Veg.txt to the codes specified in [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]] (Code_EveTr, Code_DecTr, Code_Grass). Each row should correspond to a particular surface type. For suggestions on how to complete this table, see: [http://urban-climate.net/umep/TypicalValues#Typical_Values Typical Values].
 
{|class="wikitable sortable"
 
!No.
 
!Use
 
!Column name
 
!Example
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|1 ||L ||Code ||
 
331
 
-----
 
332
 
-----
 
333
 
|Code linking to [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]] for evergreen trees and shrubs (Code_EveTr), deciduous trees and shrubs (Code_DecTr) and grass surfaces (Code_Grass).
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match codes specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.
 
|-
 
|2 ||MU ||AlbedoMin ||0-1 ||Minimum albedo of this surface [-]
 
*Effective surface albedo (middle of the day value) for wintertime (not including snow), leaf-off.
 
*View factors should be taken into account.
 
{|
 
|-
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align:left" | Example values [-]
 
!
 
|-
 
|0.10 ||EveTr || Oke (1987)<ref name="Ok87">Oke TR (1987) Boundary Layer Climates. Routledge, London, UK</ref>
 
|-
 
|0.18 ||DecTr || Oke (1987)<ref name="Ok87"/>
 
|-
 
|0.21 ||Grass || Oke (1987)<ref name="Ok87"/>
 
|}
 
|-
 
|3 ||MU ||AlbedoMax ||0-1 ||Maxmium albedo of this surface [-]
 
*Effective surface albedo (middle of the day value) for summertime, full leaf-on.
 
*View factors should be taken into account.
 
{|
 
|-
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align:left" | Example values [-]
 
|-
 
|0.10 ||EveTr || Oke (1987)<ref name="Ok87"/>
 
|-
 
|0.18 ||DecTr || Oke (1987)<ref name="Ok87"/>
 
|-
 
|0.21 ||Grass || Oke (1987)<ref name="Ok87"/>
 
|}
 
|-
 
||4 ||MU ||Emissivity ||0-1 ||Emissivity of this surface [-]
 
*Effective surface emissivity.
 
*View factors should be taken into account.
 
{|
 
|-
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align:left"| Example values [-]
 
|-
 
|0.98 ||EveTr || Oke (1987)<ref name="Ok87"/>
 
|-
 
|0.98 ||DecTr || Oke (1987)<ref name="Ok87"/>
 
|-
 
|0.93 ||Grass || Oke (1987)<ref name="Ok87"/>
 
|}
 
|-
 
|5 ||MD ||StorageMin || ||Minimum water storage capacity of this surface [mm]
 
*Minimum water storage capacity for upper surfaces (i.e. canopy).
 
*Min/max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-off/leaf-on differences for vegetated surfaces).
 
{|
 
|-
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align:left" | Example values [mm]
 
|-
 
|1.3 ||EveTr || Breuer et al. (2003)<ref name="Br03">Breuer L, Eckhardt K and Frede H-G (2003) Plant parameter values for models in temperate climates. Ecol. Model. 169, 237-293.</ref>
 
|-
 
|0.3 ||DecTr || Breuer et al. (2003)<ref name="Br03"/>
 
|-
 
|1.9 ||Grass || Breuer et al. (2003)<ref name="Br03"/>
 
|}
 
|-
 
|6 ||MD ||StorageMax || ||Maximum water storage capacity of this surface [mm]
 
*Maximum water storage capacity for upper surfaces (i.e. canopy)
 
*Min/max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-off/leaf-on differences for vegetated surfaces)
 
*Only used for DecTr surfaces - set EveTr and Grass values the same as StorageMin.
 
{|
 
|-
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align:left" | Example values [mm]
 
|-
 
|1.3 ||EveTr || Breuer et al. (2003)<ref name="Br03"/>
 
|-
 
|0.8 ||DecTr || Breuer et al. (2003)<ref name="Br03"/>
 
|-
 
|1.9 ||Grass || Breuer et al. (2003)<ref name="Br03"/>
 
|}
 
|-
 
|7 ||MD ||WetThreshold || ||Threshold for a completely wet surface [mm]
 
*Depth of water which determines whether evaporation occurs from a partially wet or completely wet surface.
 
{|
 
|-
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align:left" | Example values [mm]
 
|-
 
|1.8 ||EveTr ||
 
|-
 
|1.0 ||DecTr ||
 
|-
 
|2.0 ||Grass ||
 
|}
 
|-
 
|8 ||MD ||StateLimit || ||Upper limit to the surface state [mm]
 
*'''Currently only used for the water surface'''
 
|-
 
|9 ||MD ||DrainageEq || 1, 2, 3 ||Drainage equation to use for this surface.
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align: left" | Options
 
|-
 
|1 || Falk and Niemczynowicz (1978)<ref name="FN78"/> ||
 
|-
 
|2 || Halldin et al. (1979)<ref name="Ha79"/> (Rutter eqn corrected for c=0, see Calder & Wright (1986)<ref name="CW86"/>) || Recommended<ref name="G91"/> for EveTr, DecTr, Grass (unirrigated)
 
|-
 
|3 || Falk and Niemczynowicz (1978)<ref name="FN78"/> || Recommended<ref name="G91"/> for Grass (irrigated)
 
|}
 
*Coefficients are specified in the following two columns.
 
|-
 
|10 ||MD ||DrainageCoef1 || ||Coefficient for drainage equation [units vary according to DrainageEq specified in previous column]
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
! colspan="2" style="text-align: left" | Example values
 
! DrainageEq
 
!
 
|-
 
|10 ||Coefficient D0 [mm h<sup>-1</sup>] || 3 || Recommended<ref name="G91"/> for Grass (irrigated)
 
|-
 
|0.013 ||Coefficient D0  [mm h<sup>-1</sup>] || 2 || Recommended<ref name="G91"/> for EveTr, DecTr, Grass (unirrigated)
 
|}
 
|-
 
|11 ||MD ||DrainageCoef2 || || Coefficient for drainage equation [units vary according to DrainageEq specified in previous column]
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
! colspan="2" style="text-align: left" | Example values
 
! DrainageEq
 
!
 
|-
 
|3 ||Coefficient b [-] || 3 || Recommended<ref name="G91"/> for Grass (irrigated)
 
|-
 
|1.71 ||Coefficient b  [mm<sup>-1</sup>] || 2 || Recommended<ref name="G91"/> for EveTr, DecTr, Grass (unirrigated)
 
|}
 
|-
 
|12 ||L ||SoilTypeCode || ||Code for soil characteristics below this surface
 
Provides the link to column 1 of [[#SUEWS_Soil.txt|SUEWS_Soil.txt]], which contains the attributes describing sub-surface soil for this surface type.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_Soil.txt.
 
|-
 
|13 ||O ||SnowLimPatch || ||Maximum SWE [mm]
 
*Limit of snow water equivalent when the surface surface is fully covered with snow.
 
*Not needed if SnowUse = 0 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]].
 
{|
 
|-
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align:left" | Example values [mm]
 
|-
 
|190 ||EveTr || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/>
 
|-
 
|190 ||DecTr || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/>
 
|-
 
|190 ||Grass || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/>
 
|}
 
|-
 
|14 ||MU ||BaseT || ||Base temperature for initiating growing degree days for leaf growth [°C]
 
*See section 2.2 Järvi et al. (2011); Appendix A Järvi et al. (2014).
 
{|
 
|-
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align:left" | Example values [°C]
 
|-
 
|5 ||EveTr || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|-
 
|5 ||DecTr || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|-
 
|5 ||Grass || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|}
 
|-
 
|15 ||MU ||BaseTe || ||Base temperature for initiating senescence degree days for leaf off  [°C]
 
*See section 2.2 Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>; Appendix A Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/>.
 
{|
 
|-
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align:left" | Example values [°C]
 
|-
 
|10 ||EveTr || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|-
 
|10 ||DecTr || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|-
 
|10 ||Grass || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|}
 
|-
 
|16 ||MU ||GDDFull || ||Growing degree days needed for full capacity of the leaf area index [°C]
 
*This should be checked carefully for your study area using modelled LAI from the [[#SSss_DailyState.txt|DailyState]] output file compared to known behaviour in the study area.
 
*See section 2.2 Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>; Appendix A Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/> for more details.
 
{|
 
|-
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align:left" | Example values [°C]
 
|-
 
|300 ||EveTr || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|-
 
|300 ||DecTr || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|-
 
|300 ||Grass || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|}
 
|-
 
|17 ||MU ||SDDFull || ||Senescence degree days needed to initiate leaf off [°C]
 
*This should be checked carefully for your study area using modelled LAI from the [[#SSss_DailyState.txt|DailyState]] output file compared to known behaviour in the study area.
 
*See section 2.2 Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>; Appendix A Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/> for more details.
 
{|
 
|-
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align:left" | Example values [°C]
 
|-
 
||-450 ||EveTr || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|-
 
||-450 ||DecTr || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|-
 
||-450 ||Grass || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|}
 
|-
 
|18 ||MD ||LAIMin || ||Minimum leaf area index [m<sup>-2</sup> m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
* leaf-off wintertime value
 
{|
 
|-
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align:left" | Example values [m<sup>-2</sup> m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|4.0 ||EveTr || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|-
 
|1.0 ||DecTr || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|-
 
|1.6 ||Grass || Grimmond and Oke (1991)<ref name="G91"/> and references therein
 
|}
 
|-
 
|19 ||MD ||LAIMax || ||Maximum leaf area index  [m<sup>-2</sup> m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
* full leaf-on summertime value
 
{|
 
|-
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align:left" | Example values [m<sup>-2</sup> m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|5.1 ||EveTr || Breuer et al. (2003)<ref name="Br03"/>
 
|-
 
|5.5 ||DecTr || Breuer et al. (2003)<ref name="Br03"/>
 
|-
 
|5.9 ||Grass || Breuer et al. (2003)<ref name="Br03"/>
 
|}
 
|-
 
| 20 || MD || PorosityMin || 0.2 || Minimum porosity [-]
 
* leaf-off wintertime value
 
* Used only for DecTr (can affect roughness calculation)
 
|-
 
| 21 || MD || PorosityMax || 0.6 || Maximum porosity [-]
 
* full leaf-on summertime value
 
* Used only for DecTr  (can affect roughness calculation)
 
|-
 
 
|22 ||MD ||MaxConductance || ||Maximum conductance for each surface [mm s<sup>-1</sup>]
 
Used to calculate the surface conductance using the Jarvis (1976)<ref name="Ja76">Jarvis PG (1976) The interpretation of the variations in leaf water potential and stomatal
 
conductance found in canopies in the field. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B., 273, 593-610.</ref> model. See Eq 15 Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/> or Eq 8 Ward et al. (2016)<ref name="W16"/>.
 
{|
 
|-
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align:left" | Example values [mm s<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|7.4 ||EveTr || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|-
 
|11.7 ||DecTr || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|-
 
|33.1 ||Grass (unirrigated) || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|-
 
|40.0 ||Grass (irrigated) || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|}
 
|-
 
|23 ||MD ||LAIEq ||0, 1 ||LAI equation to use for this surface.
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
! colspan="2" style="text-align:left" | Options
 
|-
 
|0 || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|-
 
|1 || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/>
 
|}
 
* Coefficients are specified in the following four columns.
 
* N.B. North and South hemispheres are treated slightly differently.
 
|-
 
|24 ||MD ||LeafGrowthPower1 || ||Coefficient (power) for leaf growth [-]
 
See Appendix A Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/> for more details.
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
! colspan="2" style="text-align:left" | Example values
 
! LAIEq
 
|-
 
|0.03 || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/> || 0
 
|-
 
|0.04 || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/> || 1
 
|}
 
|-
 
|25 ||MD ||LeafGrowthPower2 || ||Constant in the leaf growth equation [°C<sup>-1</sup>]
 
See Appendix A Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/> for more details.
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
! colspan="2" style="text-align:left" | Example values [°C<sup>-1</sup>]
 
! LAIEq
 
|-
 
|0.0005 || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/> || 0
 
|-
 
|0.0010 || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/> || 1
 
|}
 
|-
 
|26 ||MD ||LeafOffPower1 || ||Coefficient (power) for leaf off [-]
 
See Appendix A Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/> for more details.
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
! colspan="2" style="text-align:left" | Example values
 
! LAIEq
 
|-
 
|0.03 || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/> || 0
 
|-
 
||-1.5 || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/> || 1
 
|}
 
|-
 
|27 ||MD ||LeafOffPower2 || ||Constant in the leaf off equation [°C<sup>-1</sup>]
 
See Appendix A Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/> for more details.
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
! colspan="2" style="text-align:left" | Example values [°C<sup>-1</sup>]
 
! LAIEq
 
|-
 
|0.0005 || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/> || 0
 
|-
 
|0.0015 || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/> || 1
 
|}
 
|-
 
|28 ||L ||OHMCode_SummerWet || ||Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during wet conditions in summer.
 
Links to [[#SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.
 
|-
 
|29 ||L ||OHMCode_SummerDry || ||Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during dry conditions in summer.
 
Links to [[#SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.
 
|-
 
|30 ||L ||OHMCode_WinterWet || ||Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during wet conditions in winter.
 
Links to [[#SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.
 
|-
 
|31 ||L ||OHMCode_WinterDry || ||Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during dry conditions in winter.
 
Links to [[#SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.
 
|-
 
 
|32 ||MD ||OHMThresh_SW ||10 ||Temperature threshold determining whether summer/winter OHM coefficients are applied [deg C]
 
If 5-day running mean air temperature is greater than or equal to this threshold, OHM coefficients for summertime are applied; otherwise coefficients for wintertime are applied.
 
|-
 
|33 ||MD ||OHMThresh_WD || 0.9 ||Soil moisture threshold determining whether wet/dry OHM coefficients are applied [-]
 
If soil moisture (as a proportion of maximum soil moisture capacity) exceeds this threshold for bare soil and vegetated surfaces, OHM coefficients for wet conditions are applied; otherwise coefficients for dry coefficients are applied. Note that OHM coefficients for wet conditions are applied if the surface is wet.
 
|-
 
 
|34 ||L ||ESTMCode || ||Code for ESTM coefficients to use for this surface.
 
Links to [[#SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt.
 
|-
 
 
|35 ||MU ||AnOHM_Cp || || Volumetric heat capacity for this surface to use in AnOHM [J m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|36 ||MU ||AnOHM_Kk || || Thermal conductivity for this surface to use in AnOHM [W m K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|37 ||MU ||AnOHM_Ch || || Bulk transfer coefficient for this surface to use in AnOHM [-]
 
|-
 
 
|}
 
 
====SUEWS_Water.txt==== <!--T:154-->
 
SUEWS_Water.txt specifies the characteristics for the water surface cover type by linking codes in column 1 of SUEWS_Water.txt to the codes specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt (Code_Water).
 
 
<!--T:155-->
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
!No.
 
!Use
 
!Column name
 
!Example
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|1 ||L ||Code ||331 ||Code linking to [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]] for water surfaces (Code_Water).
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.
 
|-
 
|2 ||MU ||AlbedoMin ||0-1 ||Minimum albedo of this surface [-]
 
*View factors should be taken into account.
 
*Not currently used for water surface - set same as AlbedoMax.
 
|-
 
|3 ||MU ||AlbedoMax ||0-1 ||Albedo of this surface [-]
 
*Effective albedo of the water surface.
 
*View factors should be taken into account.
 
{|
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align:left" | Example values [-]
 
|-
 
| 0.1 || Water || Oke (1987)<ref name="Ok87"/>
 
|}
 
|-
 
|4 ||MU ||Emissivity ||0-1 ||Emissivity of this surface [-]
 
*Effective surface emissivity.
 
*View factors should be taken into account
 
{|
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align:left" | Example values [-]
 
|-
 
| 0.95 || Water || Oke (1987)<ref name="Ok87"/>
 
|}
 
|-
 
|5 ||MD ||StorageMin || ||Minimum water storage capacity of this surface [mm]
 
*Minimum water storage capacity for upper surfaces (i.e. canopy).
 
*Min/max values are to account for seasonal variation - not used for water surfaces.
 
{|
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align:left" | Example values [mm]
 
|-
 
| 0.5 || Water ||
 
|}
 
|-
 
|6 ||MD ||StorageMax || ||Maximum water storage capacity of this surface [mm]
 
*Maximum water storage capacity for upper surfaces (i.e. canopy)
 
*Min and max values are to account for seasonal variation - not used for water surfaces so set same as StorageMin.
 
|-
 
|7 ||MD ||WetThreshold || ||Threshold for a completely wet surface [mm]
 
*Depth of water which determines whether evaporation occurs from a partially wet or completely wet surface.
 
{|
 
! colspan="3" style="text-align:left" | Example values [mm]
 
|-
 
| 0.5 || Water ||
 
|}
 
|-
 
|8 ||MU ||StateLimit || ||Upper limit to the surface state [mm]
 
*Surface state cannot exceed this value.
 
*Set to a large value (e.g. 20000 mm = 20 m) if the water body is substantial (lake, river, etc) or a small value (e.g. 10 mm) if water bodies are very shallow (e.g. fountains).
 
* '''WaterDepth''' (column 9) must not exceed this value.
 
|-
 
|9 ||MU ||WaterDepth || ||Typical depth for the water surface [mm]
 
*Set to a large value (e.g. 20000 mm = 20 m) if the water body is substantial (lake, river, etc) or a small value (e.g. 10 mm) if water bodies are very shallow (e.g. fountains).
 
* This value must not exceed '''StateLimit''' (column 8).
 
|-
 
 
|10 ||MD ||DrainageEq ||-999 ||Drainage equation to use for this surface.
 
*Not currently used for water surface.
 
|-
 
|11 ||MD ||DrainageCoef1 ||-999 ||Coefficient for drainage equation [units vary according to equation]
 
*Not currently used for water surface
 
|-
 
|12 ||MD ||DrainageCoef2 ||-999 ||Coefficient for drainage equation [units vary according to equation]
 
*Not currently used for water surface
 
|-
 
|13 ||L ||OHMCode_SummerWet || ||Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during wet conditions in summer.
 
Links to [[#SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.
 
|-
 
|14 ||L ||OHMCode_SummerDry || ||Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during dry conditions in summer.
 
Links to [[#SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.
 
|-
 
|15 ||L ||OHMCode_WinterWet || ||Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during wet conditions in winter.
 
Links to [[#SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.
 
|-
 
|16 ||L ||OHMCode_WinterDry || ||Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during dry conditions in winter.
 
Links to [[#SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.
 
|-
 
 
|17 ||MD ||OHMThresh_SW ||10 ||Temperature threshold determining whether summer/winter OHM coefficients are applied [deg C]
 
If 5-day running mean air temperature is greater than or equal to this threshold, OHM coefficients for summertime are applied; otherwise coefficients for wintertime are applied.
 
|-
 
|18 ||MD ||OHMThresh_WD || 0.9 ||Soil moisture threshold determining whether wet/dry OHM coefficients are applied [-]
 
If soil moisture (as a proportion of maximum soil moisture capacity) exceeds this threshold for bare soil and vegetated surfaces, OHM coefficients for wet conditions are applied; otherwise coefficients for dry coefficients are applied. Note that OHM coefficients for wet conditions are applied if the surface is wet.
 
'''Not actually used for water surface (as no soil surface beneath).'''
 
|-
 
 
|19 ||L ||ESTMCode || ||Code for ESTM coefficients to use for this surface.
 
Links to [[#SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt.
 
|-
 
 
|20 ||MU ||AnOHM_Cp || || Volumetric heat capacity for this surface to use in AnOHM [J m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|21 ||MU ||AnOHM_Kk || || Thermal conductivity for this surface to use in AnOHM [W m K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|22 ||MU ||AnOHM_Ch || || Bulk transfer coefficient for this surface to use in AnOHM [-]
 
|-
 
 
 
|}
 
 
====SUEWS_Snow.txt==== <!--T:163-->
 
SUEWS_Snow.txt specifies the characteristics for snow surfaces when SnowUse=1 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]]. If the snow part of the model is not run, fill this table with ‘-999’ except for the first (Code) column and set SnowUse=0 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]].
 
For a detailed description of the variables, see Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/>.
 
''In the current release SnowUse should be set to 0.''
 
 
<!--T:164-->
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!No.
 
!Use
 
!Column name
 
!Example
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|1 ||L ||Code ||331 ||Code linking to [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]] for snow surfaces (SnowCode).
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.
 
|-
 
|2 ||MU ||RadMeltFactor ||0.0016 ||Hourly radiation melt factor of snow [mm W<sup>-1</sup> h<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|3 ||MU ||TempMeltFactor ||0.07 ||Hourly temperature melt factor of snow [mm °C<sup>-1</sup> h<sup>-1</sup>] (In previous model version, this parameter was 0.12)
 
|-
 
|4 ||MU ||AlbedoMin ||0-1 ||Minimum snow albedo [-]
 
{|
 
! colspan="2" style="text-align=left" | Example values [-]
 
|-
 
| 0.18 || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/>
 
|-
 
|}
 
|-
 
|5 ||MU ||AlbedoMax ||0-1 ||Maximum snow albedo (fresh snow) [-]
 
{|
 
! colspan="2" style="text-align=left" | Example values [-]
 
|-
 
| 0.85 || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/>
 
|-
 
|}
 
|-
 
|6 ||MU ||Emissivity ||0-1 ||Emissivity of this surface [-]
 
* Effective surface emissivity.
 
* View factors should be taken into account
 
{|
 
! colspan="2" style="text-align=left" | Example values [-]
 
|-
 
| 0.99 || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/>
 
|-
 
|}
 
|-
 
|7 ||MD ||tau_a || 0.018 ||Time constant for snow albedo aging in cold snow [-]
 
|-
 
|8 ||MD ||tau_f || 0.11 ||Time constant for snow albedo aging in melting snow [-]
 
|-
 
|9 ||MD ||PrecipiLimAlb ||2 ||Limit for hourly precipitation when the ground is fully covered with snow. Then snow albedo is reset to AlbedoMax [mm]
 
|-
 
|10 ||MD ||snowDensMin ||100 ||Fresh snow density [kg m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|11 ||MD ||snowDensMax ||400 ||Maximum snow density [kg m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|12 ||MD ||tau_r ||0.043 ||Time constant for snow density ageing [-]
 
|-
 
|13 ||MD ||CRWMin || 0.05 ||Minimum water holding capacity of snow [mm]
 
|-
 
|14 ||MD ||CRWMax || 0.20 ||Maximum water holding capacity of snow [mm]
 
|-
 
|15 ||MD ||PrecipLimSnow ||2.2 ||Temperature limit when precipitation falls as snow [°C]
 
* Auer (1974) <ref name="Au74">Auer AH (1974) The rain versus snow threshold temperatures. Weatherwise, 27, 67.</ref>
 
|-
 
|16 ||L ||OHMCode_SummerWet || ||Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during wet conditions in summer.
 
Links to [[#SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.
 
|-
 
|17 ||L ||OHMCode_SummerDry || ||Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during dry conditions in summer.
 
Links to [[#SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.
 
|-
 
|18 ||L ||OHMCode_WinterWet || ||Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during wet conditions in winter.
 
Links to [[#SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.
 
|-
 
|19 ||L ||OHMCode_WinterDry || ||Code for OHM coefficients to use for this surface during dry conditions in winter.
 
Links to [[#SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt.
 
|-
 
|20 ||MD ||OHMThresh_SW ||10 ||Temperature threshold determining whether summer/winter OHM coefficients are applied [deg C]
 
If 5-day running mean air temperature is greater than or equal to this threshold, OHM coefficients for summertime are applied; otherwise coefficients for wintertime are applied.
 
'''Not actually used for Snow surface as winter wet conditions always assumed.'''
 
|-
 
|21 ||MD ||OHMThresh_WD || 0.9 ||Soil moisture threshold determining whether wet/dry OHM coefficients are applied [-]
 
If soil moisture (as a proportion of maximum soil moisture capacity) exceeds this threshold for bare soil and vegetated surfaces, OHM coefficients for wet conditions are applied; otherwise coefficients for dry coefficients are applied. Note that OHM coefficients for wet conditions are applied if the surface is wet.
 
'''Not actually used for Snow surface as winter wet conditions always assumed.'''
 
|-
 
 
|-
 
|22 ||L ||ESTMCode || ||Code for ESTM coefficients to use for this surface.
 
Links to [[#SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in column 1 of SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt.
 
*For paved and building surfaces, it is possible to specify multiple codes per grid (3 for paved, 5 for buildings) using [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]]. In this case, set ESTM code here to zero.
 
|-
 
 
|23 ||MU ||AnOHM_Cp || || Volumetric heat capacity for this surface to use in AnOHM [J m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|24 ||MU ||AnOHM_Kk || || Thermal conductivity for this surface to use in AnOHM [W m K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|25 ||MU ||AnOHM_Ch || || Bulk transfer coefficient for this surface to use in AnOHM [-]
 
|-
 
 
|}
 
 
====SUEWS_Soil.txt==== <!--T:172-->
 
SUEWS_Soil.txt specifies the characteristics of the sub-surface soil below each of the non-water surface types (Paved, Bldgs, EveTr, DecTr, Grass, BSoil). The model does not have a soi store below the water surfaces. Note that these sub-surface soil stores are different to the bare soil/unmamnaged surface cover type. Each of the non-water surface types need to link to soil characteristics specified here. If the soil characteristics are assumed to be the same for all surface types, use a single code value to link the characteristics here with the SoilTypeCode columns in [[#SUEWS_NonVeg.txt|SUEWS_NonVeg.txt]] and [[#SUEWS_Veg.txt|SUEWS_Veg.txt]]. 
 
 
<!--T:173-->
 
Soil moisture can either be provided using observational data in the met forcing file (smd_choice = 1 or 2 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]]) and providing some metadata information here (OBS_ columns), or modelled by SUEWS (smd_choice = 0 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]]).
 
'''- Note, the option to use observational data is not operational in the current release!'''
 
 
<!--T:174-->
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!No.
 
!Use
 
!Column name
 
!Example
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|1 ||L ||Code ||331 ||Code linking to the SoilTypeCode column in SUEWS_NonVeg.txt (for Paved, Bldgs and BSoil surfaces) and SUEWS_Veg.txt (for EveTr, DecTr and Grass surfaces).
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.
 
|-
 
|2 ||MD ||SoilDepth ||350 ||Depth of sub-surface soil store [mm]
 
i.e. the depth of soil beneath the surface
 
|-
 
|3 ||MD ||SoilStoreCap ||150 ||Capacity of sub-surface soil store [mm]
 
i.e. how much water can be stored in the sub-surface soil when at maximum capacity.
 
* SoilStoreCap must not be greater than SoilDepth.
 
|-
 
|4 ||MD ||SatHydraulicCond ||0.0005 ||Hydraulic conductivity for saturated soil [mm s<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|5 ||MD ||SoilDensity ||1.16 ||Soil density [kg m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|6 ||O ||InfiltrationRate ||-999 ||Infiltration rate [mm h<sup>-1</sup>]
 
*Not currently used
 
|-
 
|7 ||O ||OBS_SMDepth || ||Depth of soil moisture measurements [mm]
 
*Use only if soil moisture is observed and provided in the met forcing file and smd_choice = 1 or 2.
 
*'''Use of observed soil moisture not currently tested'''
 
|-
 
|8 ||O ||OBS_SMCap || ||Maxiumum observed soil moisture [m<sup>3</sup> m<sup>-3</sup> or kg kg<sup>-1</sup>]
 
*Use only if soil moisture is observed and provided in the met forcing file and smd_choice = 1 or 2.
 
*'''Use of observed soil moisture not currently tested'''
 
|-
 
|9 ||O ||OBS_SoilNotRocks || ||Fraction of soil without rocks [-]
 
*Use only if soil moisture is observed and provided in the met forcing file and smd_choice = 1 or 2.
 
*'''Use of observed soil moisture not currently tested'''
 
|}
 
 
====SUEWS_Conductance.txt==== <!--T:175-->
 
SUEWS_Conductance.txt contains the parameters needed for the Jarvis (1976) surface conductance model used in the modelling of evaporation in SUEWS. These values should '''not''' be changed independently of each other. The suggested values below have been derived using datasets for Los Angeles and Vancouver (see Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>) and should be used with '''gsModel=1'''. An alternative formulation (gsModel=2) uses slightly different functional forms and different coefficients (with different units).
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!No.
 
!Use
 
!Column name
 
!Example
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|1 ||L ||Code || ||Code linking to the CondCode column in [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.
 
|-
 
|2 ||MD ||G1 ||16.4764 ||Related to maximum surface conductance [mm s<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|3 ||MD ||G2 ||566.0923 ||Related to Kdown dependence [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|4 ||MD ||G3 ||0.2163 ||Related to VPD dependence [units depend on gsChoice in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]] ]
 
|-
 
|5 ||MD ||G4 ||3.3649 ||Related to VPD dependence [units depend on gsChoice in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]] ]
 
|-
 
|6 ||MD ||G5 ||11.0764 ||Related to temperature dependence [°C]
 
|-
 
|7 ||MD ||G6 ||0.0176 ||Related to soil moisture dependence [mm<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|8 ||MD ||TH ||40 ||Upper air temperature limit [°C]
 
|-
 
|9 ||MD ||TL ||0 ||Lower air temperature limit [°C]
 
|-
 
|10 ||MD ||S1 ||0.45 ||Related to soil moisture dependence [-]
 
''These will change in the future to ensure consistency with soil behaviour''
 
|-
 
|11 ||MD ||S2 ||15 ||Related to soil moisture dependence [mm]
 
''These will change in the future to ensure consistency with soil behaviour''
 
|-
 
|12 ||MD ||Kmax ||1200 ||Maximum incoming shortwave radiation [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|13 ||MD ||gsModel ||1 ||Determines which surface conductance parameterisation to use
 
*1 = Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
*2 = Ward et al. (2016)<ref name="W16"/> '''Recommended.'''
 
'''The parameterisation specified here must match the coefficients specified in the other columns of SUEWS_Conductance.txt.'''
 
|}
 
 
====SUEWS_AnthropogenicHeat.txt==== <!--T:177-->
 
SUEWS_AnthropogenicHeatFlux.txt provides the parameters needed to model the anthropogenic heat flux using either the method of Järvi et al. (2011) based on heating and cooling degree days (AnthropHeatMethod = 2 in 4.1 [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]]) or the method of Loridan et al. (2011) based on air temperature (AnthropHeatMethod = 1 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]]). The sub-daily variation in anthropogenic heat flux is modelled according to the daily cycles specified in SUEWS_Profiles.txt.
 
Alternatively, if available, the anthropogenic heat flux can be provided in the met forcing file (and set AnthropHeatMethod = 0 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]]), in which case all columns here except Code and BaseTHDD should be set to ’-999’.
 
 
<!--T:178-->
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!No.
 
!Use
 
!Column name
 
!Example
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|1 ||L ||Code ||331 ||Code linking to the AnthropogenicCode column in [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]].
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.
 
|-
 
|2 ||MU ||BaseTHDD || 18.2 ||Base temperature for heating degree days [°C]
 
e.g. Sailor and Vasireddy (2006)<ref name="SV06">Sailor DJ and Vasireddy C (2006) Correcting aggregate energy consumption data account for variability in local weather. Environ. Modell. Softw. 21, 733-738.</ref>
 
|-
 
|3 ||MU, O ||QF_A_Weekday || ||Base value for QF on weekdays [W m<sup>-2</sup> (Cap ha<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>-1</sup>]
 
* Use with AnthropHeatChoice = 2
 
{|
 
! colspan="2" | Example values [W m<sup>-2</sup> (Cap ha-1)<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
| 0.3081 || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|-
 
| 0.1000 || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/>
 
|-
 
|}
 
|-
 
|4 ||MU, O ||QF_B_Weekday || ||Parameter related to cooling degree days on weekdays [W m<sup>-2</sup> K<sup>-1</sup> (Cap ha<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>-1</sup>]
 
* Use with AnthropHeatMethod = 2
 
{|
 
! colspan="2" | Example values [W m<sup>-2</sup> K<sup>-1</sup> (Cap ha<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
| 0.0099 || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|-
 
| 0.0099 || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/>
 
|-
 
|}
 
|-
 
|5 ||MU, O ||QF_C_Weekday || ||Parameter related to heating degree days on weekdays [W m<sup>-2</sup> K<sup>-1</sup> (Cap ha<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>-1</sup>]
 
* Use with AnthropHeatMethod = 2
 
{|
 
! colspan="2" | Example values [W m<sup>-2</sup> K<sup>-1</sup> (Cap ha<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
| 0.0102 || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|-
 
| 0.0102 || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/>
 
|-
 
|}
 
|-
 
|6 ||MU, O ||QF_A_Weekend || ||Base value for QF on weekends [W m<sup>-2</sup> (Cap ha<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>-1</sup>]
 
* Use with AnthropHeatMethod = 2
 
{|
 
! colspan="2" | Example values [W m<sup>-2</sup> (Cap ha<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
| 0.3081 || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|-
 
| 0.1000 || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/>
 
|-
 
|}
 
|-
 
|7 ||MU, O ||QF_B_Weekend ||0-1 ||Parameter related to cooling degree days on weekends [W m<sup>-2</sup> K<sup>-1</sup> (Cap ha<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>-1</sup>]
 
* Use with AnthropHeatMethod = 2
 
{|
 
! colspan="2" | Example values [W m<sup>-2</sup> K<sup>-1</sup> (Cap ha<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
| 0.0099 || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|-
 
| 0.0099 || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/>
 
|-
 
|}
 
|-
 
|8 ||MU, O ||QF_C_Weekend || ||Parameter related to heating degree days on weekends [W m<sup>-2</sup> K<sup>-1</sup> (Cap ha<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>-1</sup>]
 
Use with AnthropHeatMethod = 2
 
{|
 
! colspan="2" | Example values [W m<sup>-2</sup> K<sup>-1</sup> (Cap ha<sup>-1</sup>)<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
| 0.0102 || Järvi et al. (2011)<ref name="J11"/>
 
|-
 
| 0.0102 || Järvi et al. (2014)<ref name="Leena2014"/>
 
|-
 
|}
 
|-
 
|9 ||MU, O ||AHMin || 15 ||Minimum QF [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
* Use with AnthropHeatMethod = 1
 
e.g. Loridan et al. (2011)<ref name="L2011"/>
 
|-
 
|10 ||MU, O ||AHSlope || 2.7 ||Slope of QF versus air temperature [W m<sup>-2</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
* Use with AnthropHeatMethod = 1
 
e.g. Loridan et al. (2011)<ref name="L2011"/>
 
|-
 
|11 ||MU, O ||TCritic || 7 ||Critical temperature [°C]
 
* Use with AnthropHeatMethod = 1
 
e.g. Loridan et al. (2011)<ref name="L2011"/>
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
====SUEWS_Irrigation.txt==== <!--T:189-->
 
SUEWS includes a simple model for external water use if observed data are not available. The model calculates daily water use from the mean daily air temperature, number of days since rain and fraction of irrigated area using automatic/manual irrigation. The sub-daily pattern of water use is modelled according to the daily cycles specified in [[#SUEWS_Profiles.txt|SUEWS_Profiles.txt]].
 
 
<!--T:190-->
 
Alternatively, if available, the external water use can be provided in the met forcing file (and set WaterUseMethod = 1 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]]), in which case all columns here except Code should be set to '-999'.
 
{|class="wikitable"
 
!No.
 
!Use
 
!Column name
 
!Example
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|1 ||L ||Code || ||Code linking to [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt] for irrigation modelling (IrrigationCode).
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match codes specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.
 
|-
 
|2 ||MU ||Ie_start ||1-366 ||Day when irrigation starts [DOY]
 
|-
 
|3 ||MU ||Ie_end ||1-366 ||Day when irrigation ends [DOY]
 
|-
 
|4 ||MU ||InternalWaterUse ||0 ||Internal water use [mm h<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|5 ||MU ||Faut ||0-1 ||Fraction of irrigated area that is irrigated using automated systems (e.g. sprinklers).
 
|-
 
|6 ||MD ||Ie_a1 ||-84.54 ||Coefficient for automatic irrigation model [mm d<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|7 ||MD ||Ie_a2 ||9.96 ||Coefficient for automatic irrigation model [mm  d<sup>-1</sup> °C<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|8 ||MD ||Ie_a3 ||3.67 ||Coefficient for automatic irrigation model [mm d<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|9 ||MD ||Ie_m1 ||-25.36 ||Coefficient for manual irrigation model [mm d<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|10 ||MD ||Ie_m2 ||3.00 ||Coefficient for manual irrigation model [mm  d<sup>-1</sup> °C<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|11 ||MD ||Ie_m3 ||1.10 ||Coefficient for manual irrigation model [mm d<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|12 ||MU ||DayWat(1) ||0 or 1 ||Irrigation allowed on Sundays [1], if not [0]
 
|-
 
|13 ||MU ||DayWat(2) ||0 or 1 ||Irrigation allowed on Mondays [1], if not [0]
 
|-
 
|14 ||MU ||DayWat(3) ||0 or 1 ||Irrigation allowed on Tuesdays [1], if not [0]
 
|-
 
|15 ||MU ||DayWat(4) ||0 or 1 ||Irrigation allowed on Wednesdays [1], if not [0]
 
|-
 
|16 ||MU ||DayWat(5) ||0 or 1 ||Irrigation allowed on Thursdays [1], if not [0]
 
|-
 
|17 ||MU ||DayWat(6) ||0 or 1 ||Irrigation allowed on Fridays [1], if not [0]
 
|-
 
|18 ||MU ||DayWat(7) ||0 or 1 ||Irrigation allowed on Saturdays [1], if not [0]
 
|-
 
|19 ||MU ||DayWatPer(1) ||0-1 ||Fraction of properties using irrigation on Sundays [0-1]
 
|-
 
|20 ||MU ||DayWatPer(2) ||0-1 ||Fraction of properties using irrigation on Mondays [0-1]
 
|-
 
|21 ||MU ||DayWatPer(3) ||0-1 ||Fraction of properties using irrigation on Tuesdays [0-1]
 
|-
 
|22 ||MU ||DayWatPer(4) ||0-1 ||Fraction of properties using irrigation on Wednesdays [0-1]
 
|-
 
|23 ||MU ||DayWatPer(5) ||0-1 ||Fraction of properties using irrigation on Thursdays [0-1]
 
|-
 
|24 ||MU ||DayWatPer(6) ||0-1 ||Fraction of properties using irrigation on Fridays [0-1]
 
|-
 
|25 ||MU ||DayWatPer(7) ||0-1 ||Fraction of properties using irrigation on Saturdays [0-1]
 
|}
 
 
====SUEWS_Profiles.txt==== <!--T:191-->
 
SUEWS_Profiles.txt specifies the daily cycle of variables related to human behaviour (energy use, water use and snow clearing). Different profiles can be specified for weekdays and weekends. The profiles are provided at hourly resolution here; the model will then interpolate the hourly energy and water use profiles to the resolution of the model time step and normalize the values provided. Thus it does not matter whether columns 2-25 add up to, say 1, 24, or another number, because the model will handle this. Currently, the snow clearing profiles are not interpolated as these are effectively a switch (0 or 1).
 
 
<!--T:192-->
 
If the anthropogenic heat flux and water use are specified in the met forcing file, the energy and water use profiles are not used.
 
 
Profiles are specified for the following
 
*Anthropogenic heat flux (weekday and weekend)
 
*Water use (weekday and weekend; manual and automatic irrigation)
 
*Snow removal (weekday and weekend)
 
*Human activity (weekday and weekend) '''- not used in v2017a'''.
 
 
<!--T:193-->
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!No.
 
!Use
 
!Column name
 
!Example
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|1 ||L ||Code || ||Code linking to the following columns in [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]]:
 
*EnergyUseProfWD : Anthropogenic heat flux, weekdays
 
*EnergyUseProfWE : Anthropogenic heat flux, weekends
 
*WaterUseProfManuWD : Manual irrigation, weekdays
 
*WaterUseProfManuWE : Manual irrigation, weekends
 
*WaterUseProfAutoWD : Automatic irrigation, weekdays
 
*WaterUseProfAutoWE: Automatic irrigation, weekends
 
*SnowClearingProfWD : Snow clearing, weekdays
 
*SnowClearingProfWE: Snow clearing, weekends
 
*ActivityProfWD: Human activity, weekdays
 
*ActivityProfWE: Human activity, weekends
 
*Value of integer is arbitrary but must match codes specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.
 
|-
 
|2-25 ||MU ||0-23 || ||Multiplier for each hour of the day [-] for energy and water use.
 
For SnowClearing, set those hours to 1 when snow removal from paved and roof surface is allowed (0 otherwise) if the snow removal limits set in the SUEWS_NonVeg.txt (SnowLimRemove column) are exceeded.
 
|}
 
 
====SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt==== <!--T:195-->
 
SUEWS_WithinGridWaterDist.txt specifies the movement of water between surfaces within a grid/area. It allows impervious connectivity to be taken into account.
 
 
<!--T:196-->
 
Each row corresponds to a surface type (linked by the Code in column 1 to the [[#SiteSelect.txt|SiteSelect.txt]] columns: WithinGridPavedCode, WithinGridBldgsCode, …, WithinGridWaterCode). Each column contains the fraction of water flowing from the surface type to each of the other surface types or to runoff or the sub-surface soil store.
 
 
Note:
 
* The sum of each row (excluding the Code) must equal 1.
 
* Water cannot flow from one surface to that same surface, so the diagonal elements should be zero.
 
* The row corresponding to the water surface should be zero, as there is currently no flow permitted from the water surface to other surfaces by the model.
 
* Currently water '''cannot''' go to both runoff and soil store (i.e. it must go to one or the other – runoff for impervious surfaces; soilstore for pervious surfaces).
 
 
<!--T:197-->
 
In the table below, for example,
 
* all flow from paved surfaces goes to runoff;
 
* 90% of flow from buildings goes to runoff, with small amounts going to other surfaces (mostly paved surfaces as buildings are often surrounded by paved areas);
 
* all flow from vegetated and bare soil areas goes into the sub-surface soil store;
 
* the row corresponding to water contains zeros (as it is currently not used).
 
 
<!--T:198-->
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
|1 ||2 ||3 ||4 ||5 ||6 ||7 ||8 ||9 ||10 || ||
 
|-
 
|Code ||ToPaved ||ToBuilt ||ToEveTr ||ToDecTr ||ToGrass ||ToBSoil ||ToWater ||ToRunoff ||ToSoilStore || ||
 
|-
 
|10 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||1 ||0 ||! ||Paved
 
|-
 
|20 ||0.06 ||0 ||0.01 ||0.01 ||0.01 ||0.01 ||0 ||0.9 ||0 ||! ||Bldgs
 
|-
 
|30 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||1 ||! ||EveTr
 
|-
 
|40 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||1 ||! ||DecTr
 
|-
 
|50 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||1 ||! ||Grass
 
|-
 
|60 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||1 ||! ||BSoil
 
|-
 
|70 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||! ||Water
 
|}
 
 
====SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt==== <!--T:203-->
 
OHM, the Objective Hysteresis Model (Grimmond et al. 1991)<ref name="G91OHM"/> calculates the storage heat flux as a function of net all-wave radiation and surface characteristics.
 
*For each surface, OHM requires three model coefficients (a1, a2, a3). The three should be selected as a set.
 
*The '''SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt''' file provides these coefficients for each surface type.
 
*A variety of values has been derived for different materials and can be found in the literature (see: [http://urban-climate.net/umep/TypicalValues#OHM_Coefficients| Typical Values]).
 
*Coefficients can be changed depending on:
 
:# surface wetness state (wet/dry) based on the calculated surface wetness state and soil moisture.
 
:# season (summer/winter) based on a 5-day running mean air temperature.
 
*To use the same coefficients irrespective of wet/dry and summer/winter conditions, use the same code for all four OHM columns (OHMCode_SummerWet, OHMCode_SummerDry, OHMCode_WinterWet and OHMCode_WinterDry).
 
 
Note, '''AnOHM''' does not use the coefficients specified in SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt but instead requires three parameters to be specified for each surface type (including snow): heat capacity, thermal conductivity and bulk transfer coefficient. These are specified in [[#SUEWS_NonVeg.txt|SUEWS_NonVeg.txt]], [[#SUEWS_Veg.txt|SUEWS_Veg.txt]], [[#SUEWS_Water.txt|SUEWS_Water.txt]] and [[#SUEWS_Snow.txt|SUEWS_Snow.txt]]. No additional files are required for AnOHM.
 
 
'''Note AnOHM is under development in v2017a and should not be used!'''
 
 
<!--T:205-->
 
{|class="wikitable"
 
!No.
 
!Use
 
!Column name
 
!Example
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|1 ||L ||Code ||331 ||Code linking to the OHMCode_SummerWet, OHMCode_SummerDry, OHMCode_WinterWet and OHMCode_WinterDry columns in SUEWS_NonVeg.txt, SUEWS_Veg,txt, SUEWS_Water.txt and SUEWS_Snow.txt files.
 
Value of integer is arbitrary but must match code specified in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.
 
|-
 
|2 ||MU ||a1 || ||Coefficient for Q* term [-]
 
|-
 
|3 ||MU ||a2 || ||Coefficient for dQ*/dt term [h]
 
|-
 
|4 ||MU ||a3 || ||Constant term [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|}
 
 
====SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt==== <!--T:208-->
 
 
'''Note ESTM is under development in v2017a and should not be used!'''
 
 
The Element Surface Temperature Method (ESTM) (Offerle et al., 2005) calculates the net storage heat flux from surface temperatures. In the method the three-dimensional urban volume is reduced to four 1-d elements (i.e. building roofs, walls, and internal mass and ground (road, vegetation, etc)). The storage heat flux is calculated from the heat conduction through the different elements. For the inside surfaces of the roof and walls, and both surfaces for the internal mass (ceilings/floors, internal walls), the surface temperature of the element is determined by setting the conductive heat transfer out of (in to) the surface equal to the radiative and convective heat losses (gains). Each element (roof, wall, internal element and ground) can have maximum five layers and each layer has three parameters tied to it: thickness (x), thermal conductivity (k), volumetric heat capacity (rhoCp).
 
 
If ESTM is used (QSchoice=4), the files [[#SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt]], [[#ESTMinput.nml|ESTMinput.nml]] and [[#SS_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data_tt.txt|SS_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data_tt.txt]] should be prepared.
 
 
SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt contains the parameters for the layers of each of the elements (roofs, wall, ground, internal mass).
 
*If less than five layers are used, the parameters for unused layers should be set to -999.
 
*The ESTM coefficients with the prefix ''Surf_'' must be specified for each surface type (plus snow) but the ''Wall_''  and ''Internal_'' variables apply to the building surfaces only.
 
*For each grid, one set of ESTM coefficients must be specified for each surface type; for paved and building surfaces it is possible to specify up to three and five sets of coefficients per grid (e.g. to represent different building materials) using the relevant columns in [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]]. For the model to use these columns in site select, the ESTMCode column in [[#SUEWS_NonVeg.txt|SUEWS_NonVeg.txt]] should be set to zero.
 
 
<!--T:209-->
 
{|class="wikitable"
 
!No.
 
!Use
 
!Column name
 
!Example
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|1 ||L ||Code ||331 ||Code linking to the ESTMCode column in SUEWS_NonVeg.txt, SUEWS_Veg,txt, SUEWS_Water.txt and SUEWS_Snow.txt files.
 
* For buildings and paved surfaces, '''set to zero''' if there is more than one ESTM class per grid and the codes and surface fractions specified in [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]] will be used instead.
 
|-
 
|2 ||MU ||Surf_thick1 ||0.2 ||Thickness of the first layer [m] for roofs (building surfaces) and ground (all other surfaces)
 
|-
 
|3 ||MU ||Surf_k1 ||0.5 ||Thermal conductivity of the first layer [W m<sup>-1</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|4 ||MU ||Surf_rhoCp1 ||840000 ||Volumetric heat capacity of the first layer [J m<sup>-3</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|5 ||O ||Surf_thick2 ||- ||Thickness of the second layer [m] (if no second layer, set to -999.)
 
|-
 
|6 ||O ||Surf_k2 ||- ||Thermal conductivity of the second layer [W m<sup>-1</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|7 ||O ||Surf_rhoCp2 ||- ||Volumetric heat capacity of the second layer [J m<sup>-3</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|8 ||O ||Surf_thick3 ||- ||Thickness of the third layer [m] (if no third layer, set to -999.)
 
|-
 
|9 ||O ||Surf_k3 ||- ||Thermal conductivity of the third layer[W m<sup>-1</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|10 ||O ||Surf_rhoCp3 ||- ||Volumetric heat capacity of the third layer[J m<sup>-3</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|11 ||O ||Surf_thick4 ||- ||Thickness of the fourth layer [m] (if no fourth layer, set to -999.)
 
|-
 
|12 ||O ||Surf_k4 ||- ||Thermal conductivity of the fourth layer[W m<sup>-1</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|13 ||O ||Surf_rhoCp4 ||- ||Volumetric heat capacity of the fourth layer [J m<sup>-3</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|14 ||O ||Surf_thick5 ||- ||Thickness of the fifth layer [m] (if no fifth layer, set to -999.)
 
|-
 
|15 ||O ||Surf_k5 ||- ||Thermal conductivity of the fifth layer [W m<sup>-1</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|16 ||O ||Surf_rhoCp5 ||- ||Volumetric heat capacity of the fifth layer [J m<sup>-3</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|17 ||MU ||Wall_thick1 ||- ||Thickness of the first layer [m] for building surfaces only; set to -999 for all other surfaces
 
|-
 
|18 ||MU ||Wall_k1 ||- ||Thermal conductivity of the first layer [W m<sup>-1</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|19 ||MU ||Wall_rhoCp1 ||- ||Volumetric heat capacity of the first layer [J m<sup>-3</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|20 ||O ||Wall_thick2 ||- ||Thickness of the second layer [m] (if no second layer, set to -999.)
 
|-
 
|21 ||O ||Wall_k2 ||- ||Thermal conductivity of the second layer [W m<sup>-1</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|22 ||O ||Wall_rhoCp2 ||- ||Volumetric heat capacity of the second layer [J m<sup>-3</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|23 ||O ||Wall_thick3 ||- ||Thickness of the third layer [m] (if no third layer, set to -999.)
 
|-
 
|24 ||O ||Wall_k3 ||- ||Thermal conductivity of the third layer [W m<sup>-1</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|25 ||O ||Wall_rhoCp3 ||- ||Volumetric heat capacity of the third layer [J m<sup>-3</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|26 ||O ||Wall_thick4 ||- ||Thickness of the fourth layer [m] (if no fourth layer, set to -999.)
 
|-
 
|27 ||O ||Wall_k4 ||- ||Thermal conductivity of the fourth layer[W m<sup>-1</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|28 ||O ||Wall_rhoCp4 ||- ||Volumetric heat capacity of the fourth layer [J m<sup>-3</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|29 ||O ||Wall_thick5 ||- ||Thickness of the fifth layer [m] (if no fifth layer, set to -999.)
 
|-
 
|30 ||O ||Wall_k5 ||- ||Thermal conductivity of the fifth layer[W m<sup>-1</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|31 ||O ||Wall_rhoCp5 ||- ||Volumetric heat capacity of the fifth layer [J m<sup>-3</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|32 ||MU ||Internal_thick1 ||- ||Thickness of the first layer [m] for building surfaces only; set to -999 for all other surfaces
 
|-
 
|33 ||MU ||Internal_k1 ||- ||Thermal conductivity of the first layer [W m<sup>-1</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|34 ||MU ||Internal_rhoCp1 ||- ||Volumetric heat capacity of the first layer[J m<sup>-3</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|35 ||O ||Internal_thick2 ||- ||Thickness of the second layer [m] (if no second layer, set to -999.)
 
|-
 
|36 ||O ||Internal_k2 ||- ||Thermal conductivity of the second layer [W m<sup>-1</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|37 ||O ||Internal_rhoCp2 ||- ||Volumetric heat capacity of the second layer [J m<sup>-3</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|38 ||O ||Internal_thick3 ||- ||Thickness of the third layer [m] (if no third layer, set to -999.)
 
|-
 
|39 ||O ||Internal_k3 ||- ||Thermal conductivity of the third layer [W m<sup>-1</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|40 ||O ||Internal_rhoCp3 ||- ||Volumetric heat capacity of the third layer[J m<sup>-3</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|41 ||O ||Internal_thick4 ||- ||Thickness of the fourth layer [m] (if no fourth layer, set to -999.)
 
|-
 
|42 ||O ||Internal_k4 ||- ||Thermal conductivity of the fourth layer [W m<sup>-1</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|43 ||O ||Internal_rhoCp4 ||- ||Volumetric heat capacity of the fourth layer [J m<sup>-3</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|44 ||O ||Internal_thick5 ||- ||Thickness of the fifth layer [m] (if no fifth layer, set to -999.)
 
|-
 
|45 ||O ||Internal_k5 ||- ||Thermal conductivity of the fifth layer [W m<sup>-1</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|46 ||O ||Internal_rhoCp5 ||- ||Volumetric heat capacity of the fifth layer [J m<sup>-3</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|47 ||MU ||nroom ||- ||Number of rooms per floor for building surfaces only
 
|-
 
|48 ||MU ||Internal_albedo ||- ||Albedo of all internal elements for building surfaces only
 
|-
 
|49 ||MU ||Internal_emissivity ||- ||Emissivity of all internal elements for building surfaces only
 
|-
 
|50 ||O ||Internal_CHwall || ||Bulk transfer coefficient of internal wall [W m<sup>-2</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>] (for building surfaces only and if IbldCHmod == 0 in [[#ESTMinput.nml|ESTMinput.nml]]
 
|-
 
|51 ||O ||Internal_CHroof || ||Bulk transfer coefficient of internal roof [W m<sup>-2</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>] (for building surfaces only and if IbldCHmod == 0 in [[#ESTMinput.nml|ESTMinput.nml]]
 
|-
 
|52 ||O ||Internal_CHbld || ||Bulk transfer coefficient of internal building elements [W m<sup>-2</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>] (for building surfaces only and if IbldCHmod == 0 in [[#ESTMinput.nml|ESTMinput.nml]]
 
|}
 
 
===Additional ESTM-related files===
 
 
Depending on how the storage heat flux is calculated (specified by StorageHeatMethod in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]]), different input files are required:
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Option
 
!StorageHeatMethod
 
!Files needed
 
|-
 
| OHM || 1  ||
 
*Coefficients a1, a2, a3 specified in [[#SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_OHMCoefficients.txt]]
 
|-
 
| Observations || 2  ||
 
*Storage heat flux is provide in meteorological forcing file
 
|-
 
| AnOHM || 3 ||
 
*Thermal properties specified with other site characteristics in [[#SUEWS_NonVeg.txt|SUEWS_NonVeg.txt]], [[#SUEWS_Veg.txt|SUEWS_Veg.txt]],[[#SUEWS_Water.txt|SUEWS_Water.txt]] and [[#SUEWS_Snow.txt|SUEWS_Snow.txt]]
 
|-
 
| ESTM || 4 ||
 
*Properties of each element specified in [[#SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt|SUEWS_ESTMCoefficients.txt]]
 
*Model options specified in [[#ESTMinput.nml|ESTMinput.nml]]
 
*Time-series of surface temperatures provided in [[#SSss_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data_tt.txt|SSss_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data_tt.txt]]
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
'''Note ESTM is under development in v2017a and should not be used!'''
 
 
The following input files are required if ESTM is used to calculate the storage heat flux.
 
 
====ESTMinput.nml==== <!--T:210-->
 
ESTMinput.nml specifies the model settings and default values.
 
*The file contents can be in any order.
 
 
<!--T:212-->
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Name 
 
! colspan="2" | Description
 
|-
 
|
 
| colspan="2" |
 
|-
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4" | TsurfChoice
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left" | Source of surface temperature data used.
 
|-
 
|0 || *Tsurf in [[#SSss_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data_tt.txt | SSss_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data_tt.txt]] used for '''all''' surface elements.
 
|-
 
|1 || *Tground, Troof and Twall in [[#SSss_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data_tt.txt | SSss_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data_tt.txt]] used.
 
*Input surface temperature are different for ground, roof and wall.
 
|-
 
|2 || *Tground, Troof, Twall_n, Twall_e, Twall_s and Twall_w in [[#SSss_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data_tt.txt | SSss_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data_tt.txt]] used. 
 
*Wall surface temperature is different for four directions.
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4" | evolveTibld
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left" | Source of internal building temperature (Tibld)
 
|-
 
|0 || *Tiair in [[#SSss_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data_tt.txt | SSss_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data_tt.txt]] used.
 
|-
 
|1 || *Tibld calculated considering the effect of anthropogenic heat from HVAC
 
|-
 
|2 || *Tibld calculated without considering the influence of HVAC.
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4" | IbldCHmod
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left" | Method to calculate internal convective heat exchange coefficients (CH) for internal building, wall and roof if evolveTibld is 1 or 2.
 
|-
 
|0 || CHs are read from SUEWS_ESTMcoefficients.txt.
 
|-
 
|1 || CHs are calculated based on ASHRAE (2001)
 
|-
 
|2 || CHs are calculated based on Awbi (1998).
 
|-
 
 
! scope="row" | LBC_soil
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left" | Soil temperature at lowest boundary condition [˚C]
 
|-
 
! scope="row" | Theat_on
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left" | Temperature at which heat control is turned on (used when evolveTibld =1)  [˚C]
 
|-
 
! scope="row" | Theat_off
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left" | Temperature at which heat control is turned off (used when evolveTibld=1) [˚C]
 
|-
 
! scope="row" | Theat_fix
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left" | Ideal internal building temperature  [˚C]
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
====SSss_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data_tt.txt==== <!--T:213-->
 
SSss_YYYY_ESTM_Ts_data_tt.txt contains a time-series of input surface temperature for roof, wall, ground and internal elements.
 
 
{|class="wikitable"
 
!No.
 
!Column name
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|1 ||iy ||Year [YYYY]
 
|-
 
|2 ||id ||Day of year [DOY]
 
|-
 
|3 ||it ||Hour [H]
 
|-
 
|4 ||imin ||Minute [M]
 
|-
 
|5 ||Tiair ||Indoor air temperature [˚C]
 
|-
 
|6 ||Tsurf ||Bulk surface temperature [˚C] (used when TsurfCoice = 0)
 
|-
 
|7 ||Troof ||Roof surface temperature [˚C] (used when TsurfChoice = 1 or 2)
 
|-
 
|8 ||Troad ||Ground surface temperature [˚C] (used when TsurfChoice = 1 or 2)
 
|-
 
|9 ||Twall ||Wall surface temperature [˚C] (used when TsurfChoice = 1)
 
|-
 
|10 ||Twall_n ||North-facing wall surface temperature [˚C] (used when TsurfChoice = 2)
 
|-
 
|11 ||Twall_e ||East-facing wall surface temperature [˚C] (used when TsurfChoice = 2)
 
|-
 
|12 ||Twall_s ||South-facing wall surface temperature [˚C] (used when TsurfChoice = 2)
 
|-
 
|13 ||Twall_w ||West-facing wall surface temperature [˚C] (used when TsurfChoice = 2)
 
|}
 
 
===Initial Conditions file=== <!--T:228-->
 
To start the model, information about the conditions at the start of the run is required. This information is provided in initial conditions file. One file can be specified for each grid (MultipleInitFiles=1 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]], filename includes grid number) or, alternatively, a single file can be specified for all grids (MultipleInitFiles=0 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]], no grid number in the filename). After that, a new InitialConditionsSSss_YYYY.nml file will be written for each grid for the following years. It is recommended that you look at these files (written to the input directory) to check the status of various surfaces at the end or the run. This may help you get more realistic starting values if you are uncertain what they should be. Note this file will be created for each year for multiyear runs for each grid. If the run finishes before the end of the year the InitialConditions file is still written and the file name is appended with '_EndofRun'.
 
 
The two most important pieces of information in the initial conditions file is the soil moisture and state of vegetation at the start of the run. This is the minimal information required; other information can be provided if known, otherwise SUEWS will make an estimate of initial conditions.
 
 
====InitialConditionsSSss_YYYY.nml==== <!--T:229-->
 
*Variables can be in any order
 
{|class="wikitable"
 
!Parameters
 
!Required/Optional
 
!Unit
 
!Comments
 
|-
 
|'''Soil moisture states''' || || ||
 
|-
 
|SoilstorePavedState ||R ||mm ||Initial state of the soil water storage under paved surfaces.
 
*For maximum values, see the used soil code in [[#SUEWS_Soil.txt|SUEWS_Soil.txt]]
 
|-
 
|SoilstoreBldgsState ||R ||mm ||Initial state of the soil water storage under buildings
 
*For maximum values, see the used soil code in [[#SUEWS_Soil.txt|SUEWS_Soil.txt]]
 
|-
 
|SoilstoreEveTrState ||R ||mm ||Initial state of the soil water storage under evergreen trees
 
*For maximum values, see the used soil code in [[#SUEWS_Soil.txt|SUEWS_Soil.txt]]
 
|-
 
|SoilstoreDecTrState ||R ||mm ||Initial state of the soil water storage under deciduous trees
 
*For maximum values, see the used soil code in [[#SUEWS_Soil.txt|SUEWS_Soil.txt]]
 
|-
 
|SoilstoreGrassState ||R ||mm ||Initial state of the soil water storage under grass
 
*For maximum values, see the used soil code in [[#SUEWS_Soil.txt|SUEWS_Soil.txt]]
 
|-
 
|SoilstoreBSoilState ||R ||mm ||Initial state of the soil water storage under bare soil surfaces
 
*For maximum values, see the used soil code in [[#SUEWS_Soil.txt|SUEWS_Soil.txt]]
 
|-
 
| || || || (Note: no soil store below water surface)
 
|-
 
|'''Vegetation parameters''' || || || Can be set individually or using a single vegetation parameter (LeavesOutInitially)
 
|-
 
|LeavesOutIntially || (O) ||- ||Sets all required vegetation parameters accordingly using information for full leaf-out (1)/complete leaf-off (0)
 
*If the model run starts in winter when trees are bare, set LeavesOutIntially = 0 and the vegetation parameters will be set accordingly based on the values set in SUEWS_SiteInfo.xlsm.
 
*If the model run starts in summer when leaves are fully out, set LeavesOutIntially = 1 and the vegetation parameters will be set accordingly based on the values set in SUEWS_SiteInfo.xlsm.
 
*Not LeavesOutInitially can only be set to 0, 1 or -999 (fractional values cannot be used to indicate partial leaf-out).
 
*The value of LeavesOutInitially overrides any values provided for the individual vegetation parameters.
 
*To prevent LeavesOutInitially from setting the initial conditions, either omit it from the namelist or set to -999.
 
*If values are provided individually, they should be consistent the information provided in [[#SUEWS_Veg.txt|SUEWS_Veg.txt]] and the time of year.
 
*If values are provided individually, values for all required surfaces must be provided (i.e. specifying only albGrass0 but not albDecTr0 nor albEveTr0 is not permitted).
 
|-
 
|GDD_1_0 ||O ||°C ||Growing degree days for leaf growth.
 
*Cannot be negative.
 
*If leaves are already full, then this should be the same as GDDFull in SUEWS_Veg.txt.
 
*If ''winter'', set to 0.
 
*It is important that the vegetation characteristics are set correctly (i.e. for the start of the run in summer/winter).
 
|-
 
|GDD_2_0 ||O ||°C ||Growing degree days for senescence growth.
 
* Cannot be positive
 
*If the leaves are full but in early/mid summer then set to 0.
 
*If ''late summer or autumn'', this should be a negative value.
 
*If ''leaves are off'', then use the values of SDDFull in SUEWS_Veg.txt to guide your minimum value.
 
*It is important that the vegetation characteristics are set correctly (i.e. for the start of the run in summer/winter).
 
|-
 
|LAIinitialEveTr ||O ||m<sup>-2</sup> m<sup>-2</sup> ||Initial LAI for evergreen trees. The recommended values can be found from [[#SUEWS_Veg.txt|SUEWS_Veg.txt]]
 
|-
 
|LAIinitialDecTr ||O ||m<sup>-2</sup> m<sup>-2</sup> ||Initial LAI for deciduous trees. The recommended values can be found from [[#SUEWS_Veg.txt|SUEWS_Veg.txt]]
 
|-
 
|LAIinitialGrass ||O ||m<sup>-2</sup> m<sup>-2</sup> ||Initial LAI for irrigated grass. The recommended values can be found from [[#SUEWS_Veg.txt|SUEWS_Veg.txt]]
 
|-
 
|albEveTr0 ||O ||- ||Albedo of evergreen surface on day 0 of run
 
|-
 
|albDecTr0 ||O ||- ||Albedo of deciduous surface on day 0 of run
 
|-
 
|albGrass0 ||O ||- ||Albedo of grass surface on day 0 of run
 
|-
 
|decidCap0 ||O ||mm ||Deciduous storage capacity on day 0 of run.
 
|-
 
|porosity0 ||O ||- ||Porosity of deciduous vegetation on day 0 of run. This varies between 0.2 (leaf-on) and 0.6 (leaf-off).
 
|-
 
 
|'''Recent meteorology''' || || ||
 
|-
 
|DaysSinceRain || O || days ||Number of days since rainfall occurred.
 
*'''Important''' to use correct value if starting in summer season
 
*If starting when external water use is not occurring it will be reset with the first rain so can just be set to 0.
 
*If unknown, SUEWS sets to zero by default.
 
*Used to model irrigation.
 
|-
 
|Temp_C0 ||O ||°C ||Daily mean temperature [°C] for the day before the run starts
 
*If unknown, SUEWS uses the mean temperature for the first day of the run.
 
*Used to model irrigation and anthropogenic heat flux.
 
|-
 
|'''Above Ground State'''|| || ||
 
|-
 
|PavedState || O || ||Initial wetness state of paved surface (0 indicates dry, wet otherwise).
 
*If unknown, model assumes dry surfaces (acceptable as rainfall or irrigation will update these states quickly).
 
|-
 
|BldgsState || O ||mm ||Initial wetness state for buildings (0 indicates dry, wet otherwise).
 
*If unknown, model assumes dry surfaces (acceptable as rainfall or irrigation will update these states quickly).
 
|-
 
|EveTrState || O ||mm ||Initial wetness state of evergreen trees (0 indicates dry, wet otherwise).
 
*If unknown, model assumes dry surfaces (acceptable as rainfall or irrigation will update these states quickly).
 
|-
 
|DecTrState || O ||mm ||Initial wetness state of deciduous trees (0 indicates dry, wet otherwise).
 
*If unknown, model assumes dry surfaces (acceptable as rainfall or irrigation will update these states quickly).
 
|-
 
|GrassState || O ||mm ||Initial wetness state of grass (0 indicates dry, wet otherwise).
 
*If unknown, model assumes dry surfaces (acceptable as rainfall or irrigation will update these states quickly).
 
|-
 
|BSoilState || O ||mm ||Initial wetness state of bare soil surface (0 indicates dry, wet otherwise).
 
*If unknown, model assumes dry surfaces (acceptable as rainfall or irrigation will update these states quickly).
 
|-
 
|WaterState || O ||mm ||Initial state of water surface (must be set > 0, as 0 indicates dry surface).
 
*For a large water body (e.g. river, sea, lake) set WaterState to a large value, e.g. 20000 mm; for small water bodies (e.g. ponds, fountains) set WaterState to smaller value, e.g. 1000 mm.
 
*This value must not exceed '''StateLimit''' specified in [[#SUEWS_Water.txt|SUEWS_Water.txt]].
 
*If unknown, model uses value of '''WaterDepth''' specified in [[#SUEWS_Water.txt|SUEWS_Water.txt]].
 
|-
 
 
|'''Snow-related parameters''' || || || Can be set individually or using a single snow parameter (SnowInitially)
 
|-
 
|SnowIntially || (O) ||- ||Sets all required snow-related parameters accordingly if there is initially no snow
 
*If the model run starts when there is no snow on the ground, set SnowIntially = 0 and the snow-related parameters will be set accordingly.
 
*If the model run starts when there is snow on the ground, the following snow-related parameters must be set appropriately.
 
*The value of SnowInitially overrides any values provided for the individual snow-related parameters.
 
*To prevent SnowInitially from setting the initial conditions, either omit it from the namelist or set to -999.
 
*If values are provided individually, they should be consistent the information provided in [[#SUEWS_Snow.txt|SUEWS_Snow.txt]].
 
|-
 
|SnowWaterPavedState || O ||mm ||Initial amount of liquid water in the snow on paved surfaces.
 
|-
 
|SnowWaterBldgsState || O ||mm ||Initial amount of liquid water in the snow on buildings
 
|-
 
|SnowWaterEveTrState || O ||mm ||Initial amount of liquid water in the snow on evergreen trees
 
|-
 
|SnowWaterDecTrState || O ||mm ||Initial amount of liquid water in the snow on deciduous trees
 
|-
 
|SnowWaterGrassState || O ||mm ||Initial amount of liquid water in the snow on grass surfaces
 
|-
 
|SnowWaterBSoilState || O ||mm ||Initial amount of liquid water in the snow on bare soil surfaces
 
|-
 
|SnowWaterWaterState || O ||mm ||Initial amount of liquid water in the snow in water
 
|-
 
|SnowPackPaved || O ||mm ||Initial snow water equivalent if the snow on paved surfaces
 
|-
 
|SnowPackBldgs || O ||mm ||Initial snow water equivalent if the snow on buildings
 
|-
 
 
<!--T:230-->
 
|SnowPackEveTr || O ||mm ||Initial snow water equivalent if the snow on evergreen trees
 
|-
 
|SnowPackDecTr || O ||mm ||Initial snow water equivalent if the snow on deciduous trees
 
|-
 
|SnowPackGrass || O ||mm ||Initial snow water equivalent if the snow on grass surfaces
 
|-
 
|SnowPackBSoil || O ||mm ||Initial snow water equivalent if the snow on bare soil surfaces
 
|-
 
|SnowPackWater || O ||mm ||Initial snow water equivalent if the snow on water
 
|-
 
|SnowFracPaved || O ||- ||Initial plan area fraction of snow on paved surfaces
 
|-
 
|SnowFracBldgs || O ||- ||Initial plan area fraction of snow on buildings
 
|-
 
|SnowFracEveTr || O ||- ||Initial plan area fraction of snow on evergreen trees
 
|-
 
|SnowFracDecTr || O ||- ||Initial plan area fraction of snow on deciduous trees
 
|-
 
|SnowFracGras || O ||- ||Initial plan area fraction of snow on grass surfaces
 
|-
 
|SnowFracBSoil || O ||- ||Initial plan area fraction of snow on bare soil surfaces
 
|-
 
|SnowFracWater || O ||- ||Initial plan area fraction of snow on water
 
|-
 
|SnowDensPaved || O ||kg m<sup>-3</sup> ||Initial snow density on paved surfaces
 
|-
 
|SnowDensBldgs || O ||kg m<sup>-3</sup> ||Initial snow density on buildings
 
|-
 
|SnowDensEveTr || O ||kg m<sup>-3</sup> ||Initial snow density on evergreen trees
 
|-
 
|SnowDensDecTr || O ||kg m<sup>-3</sup> ||Initial snow density on deciduous trees
 
|-
 
|SnowDensGrass || O ||kg m<sup>-3</sup> ||Initial snow density on grass surfaces
 
|-
 
|SnowDensBSoil || O ||kg m<sup>-3</sup> ||Initial snow density on bare soil surfaces
 
|-
 
|SnowDensWater || O ||kg m<sup>-3</sup> ||Initial snow density on water
 
|}
 
 
===Meteorological input file=== <!--T:231-->
 
 
<!--T:232-->
 
SUEWS is designed to run using commonly measured meteorological variables.
 
*Required inputs must be continuous – i.e. '''gap fill''' any missing data.
 
*The table below gives the required (R) and optional (O) additional input variables.
 
*If an optional input variable is not available or will not be used by the model, enter ‘-999.0’ for this column.
 
*Since v2017a forcing files no longer need to end with two rows containing ‘-9’ in the first column.
 
 
<!--T:233-->
 
*One single meteorological file can be used for all grids ('''MultipleMetFiles=0''' in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]], no grid number in file name) if appropriate for the study area, or
 
*separate met files can be used for each grid if data are available ('''MultipleMetFiles=1''' in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]], filename includes grid number).
 
 
*The meteorological forcing file names should be appended with the temporal resolution in minutes (SS_YYYY_data_tt.txt, or SSss_YYYY_data_tt.txt for multiple grids).
 
 
<!--T:234-->
 
*Separate met forcing files should be provided for each year.
 
*Files do not need to start/end at the start/end of the year, but they must contain a whole number of days.
 
*The meteorological input file should match the information given in [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]].
 
*If a ''partial year'' is used that specific year must be given in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.
 
*If ''multiple years'' are used, all years should be included in SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt.
 
*If a ''whole year'' (e.g. 2011) is intended to be modelled using and hourly resolution dataset, the number of lines in the met data file should be 8760 and begin and end with:
 
 
iy id it imin
 
2011 1 1 0 …
 
 
2012 1 0 0 …
 
 
====SSss_YYYY_data_tt.txt==== <!--T:235-->
 
Main meteorological data file.
 
 
<!--T:236-->
 
{|class="wikitable"
 
!No.
 
!Use
 
!Column name
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|1 ||R ||iy ||Year [YYYY]
 
|-
 
|2 ||R ||id ||Day of year [DOY]
 
|-
 
|3 ||R ||it ||Hour [H]
 
|-
 
|4 ||R ||imin ||Minute [M]
 
|-
 
|5 ||O ||qn ||Net all-wave radiation [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
*Required if '''NetRadiationMethod''' = 1.
 
|-
 
|6 ||O ||qh ||Sensible heat flux [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|7 ||O ||qe ||Latent heat flux [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|8 ||O ||qs ||Storage heat flux [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|9 ||O ||qf ||Anthropogenic heat flux [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|10 ||R ||U ||Wind speed [m s<sup>-1</sup>]
 
*Height of the wind speed measurement (z) is needed in [[#SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt|SUEWS_SiteSelect.txt]].
 
|-
 
|11 ||R ||RH ||Relative Humidity [%]
 
|-
 
|12 ||R ||Tair ||Air temperature [°C]
 
|-
 
|13 ||R ||pres ||Barometric pressure [kPa]
 
|-
 
|14 ||R ||rain ||Rainfall [mm]
 
|-
 
|15 ||R ||kdown ||Incoming shortwave radiation [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
*Must be > 0 W m<sup>-2</sup>.
 
|-
 
|16 ||O ||snow ||Snow [mm]
 
*Required if '''SnowUse''' = 1
 
|-
 
|17 ||O ||ldown ||Incoming longwave radiation [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|18 ||O ||fcld ||Cloud fraction [tenths]
 
|-
 
|19 ||O ||Wuh ||External water use [<sup>3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|20 ||O ||xsmd ||Observed soil moisture [<sup>3</sup> m<sup>-3</sup> or kg kg<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|21 ||O ||lai ||Observed leaf area index [m<sup>-2</sup> m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|22 ||O ||kdiff ||Diffuse radiation [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
*Recommended if '''SOLWEIGUse''' = 1
 
|-
 
|23 ||O ||kdir ||Direct radiation [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
*Recommended if '''SOLWEIGUse''' = 1
 
|-
 
|24 ||O ||wdir ||Wind direction [°]
 
*Currently not implemented
 
|}
 
 
===CBL input files === <!--T:238-->
 
Main references for this part of the model: Onomura et al. (2015)<ref name="Shiho2015"/> and Cleugh and Grimmond (2001)<ref name="CG2001"/>.
 
 
<!--T:239-->
 
If CBL slab model is used (CBLuse=1 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]]) the following files are needed:
 
 
{|class="wikitable"
 
!Filename
 
!Purpose
 
|-
 
| CBL_initial_data.txt
 
| Gives initial data every morning when CBL slab model starts running.
 
*filename must match the InitialData_FileName in CBLInput.nml.
 
*fixed format.
 
|-
 
|CBLInput.nml
 
| Specifies run options, parameters and input file names.
 
* Can be in any order
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
=====CBL_initial_data.txt===== <!--T:241-->
 
This file should give initial data every morning when CBL slab model starts running. The file name should match the InitialData_FileName in CBLInput.nml.
 
 
<!--T:243-->
 
Definitions and example file of initial values prepared for Sacramento.
 
 
{|class="wikitable sortable"
 
! No.
 
! Column name
 
! Description
 
|-
 
| 1 || id || Day of year [DOY]
 
|-
 
| 2 || zi0 || initial convective boundary layer height (m)
 
|-
 
| 3 || gamt_Km
 
|vertical gradient of potential temperature (K m<sup>-1</sup>) strength of the inversion
 
|-
 
| 4 || gamq_gkgm
 
|vertical gradient of specific humidity (g kg<sup>-1</sup> m<sup>-1</sup>)
 
|-
 
| 5 || Theta+_K
 
|potential temperature at the top of CBL (K)
 
|-
 
| 6 || q+_gkg
 
|specific humidity at the top of CBL (g kg<sup>-1</sup>)
 
|-
 
| 7 || Theta_K
 
|potential temperature in CBL (K)
 
|-
 
| 8 || q_gkg
 
|specific humidiy in CBL (g kg<sup>-1</sup>)
 
|}
 
 
<!--T:244-->
 
* gamt_Km and gamq_gkgm written to two significant figures are required for the model performance in appropriate ranges<ref name="Shiho2015"/>.
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
|id || zi0 || gamt_Km || gamq_gkgm|| Theta+_K|| q+_gkg|| theta_K|| q_gkg
 
|-
 
|234||188|| 0.0032|| 0.00082|| 290.4|| 9.6|| 288.7|| 8.3
 
|-
 
|235|| 197|| 0.0089|| 0.089|| 290.2|| 8.4|| 288.3|| 8.7
 
|-
 
| ⁞ || ⁞|| ⁞|| ⁞|| ⁞|| ⁞|| ⁞|| ⁞
 
|-
 
| ⁞ || ⁞|| ⁞|| ⁞|| ⁞|| ⁞|| ⁞|| ⁞
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
====CBL_Input.nml==== <!--T:245-->
 
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
!Name
 
! colspan="2" | Description
 
|-
 
| colspan="3"|
 
|-
 
! scope="row" rowspan="6" | EntrainmentType
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left" | Determines entrainment scheme. See Cleugh and Grimmond 2000<ref name="CG2001"/> for details.
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
|1 ||Tennekes and Driedonks (1981)  - '''Recommended'''
 
|-
 
|2 ||McNaughton and Springs (1986)
 
|-
 
|3  ||Rayner and Watson (1991)
 
|-
 
|4 ||Tennekes (1973)
 
|-
 
! scope="row" rowspan="5" | QH_Choice
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left" | Determines QH used for CBL model.
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
|1 ||QH modelled by SUEWS
 
|-
 
|2 ||QH modelled by LUMPS
 
|-
 
|3  ||Observed QH values are used from the meteorological input file
 
|-
 
! scope="row" rowspan="1" | Wsb
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left" | Subsidence velocity (m s<sup>-1</sup>) in eq. 1 and 2 of Onomura et al. (2015)<ref name="Shiho2015"/>.
 
(-0.01 m s<sup>-1</sup> recommended)
 
|-
 
! scope="row" rowspan="1" | CBLday(id)
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left" | CBL model is used for the days you choose.
 
* Set CBLday(id) = 1
 
* If CBL model is set to run for DOY 175–177, CBLday(175) = 1, CBLday(176) = 1, CBLday(177) = 1
 
|-
 
! scope="row" rowspan="1" | CO2_included
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left" | Set to zero in current version
 
|-
 
! scope="row" rowspan="5" | InitialData_use
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left" | Determines initial values (see CBL_Initial_data.txt)
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
|0 ||All initial values are calculated. (Not available in current release.)
 
|-
 
|1 || Take zi0, gamt_Km and gamq_gkgm from input data file. Theta+_K, q+_gkg, Theta_K and q_gkg are calculated using Temp_C, avrh and Pres_kPa in meteorological input file.
 
|-
 
|2  ||Take all initial values from input data file (see CBL_Initial_data.txt).
 
|-
 
! scope="row" rowspan="1" | InitialDataFileName
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left" | If InitialData_use ≥ 1, write the file name including the path from site directory e.g. InitialDataFileName='CBLinputfiles\CBL_initial_data.txt'
 
|-
 
! scope="row" rowspan="4" | Sondeflag
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left" |
 
|-
 
| Value || Comments
 
|-
 
|0 || Does not read radiosonde vertical profile data -'''recommended'''
 
|-
 
|1 || Reads radiosonde vertical profile data
 
|-
 
! scope="row" rowspan="1" | FileSonde(id)
 
! scope="row" colspan="2" style="text-align:left" | If Sondeflag=1, write the file name including the path from site directory
 
e.g. FileSonde(id)= 'CBLinputfiles\XXX.txt', XXX is an arbitrary name.
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
===SOLWEIG input files=== <!--T:249-->
 
If the SOLWEIG model option is used (SOLWEIGout=1), spatial data and a SOLWEIGInput.nml file need to be prepared. The Digital Surface Models (DSMs) as well as derivatives originating from DSMs, e.g. Sky View Factors (SVF) must have the same spatial resolution and extent. Since SOLWEIG is a 2D model it will considerably increase computation time and should be used with care.
 
 
<!--T:250-->
 
Description of choices in SOLWEIGinput_file.nml file. The file can be in any order.
 
 
<!--T:251-->
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Name
 
!Units
 
! colspan="2" | Description
 
|-
 
| colspan="4" |
 
|-
 
| scope="row" rowspan="3"| Posture
 
| scope="row" rowspan="3"| -
 
| colspan="2" | Determines the posture of a human for which the radiant fluxes should be considered
 
|-
 
||1 ||Standing (default)
 
|-
 
||2 ||Sitting
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row"| absL
 
| scope="row"| -
 
| colspan="2" | Absorption coefficient of longwave radiation of a person.
 
* Recommended value: 0.97
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row"| absK
 
| scope="row"| -
 
| colspan="2" | Absorption coefficient of shortwave radiation of a person.
 
* Recommended value: 0.70
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row"| heightgravity
 
| scope="row"| m
 
| colspan="2" | Centre of gravity for a person.
 
* Recommended value for a standing man: 1.1 m
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row" rowspan="3"| usevegdem
 
| scope="row" rowspan="3"| -
 
| colspan="2" | Vegetation scheme
 
|-
 
||1 ||Vegetation scheme is active (Lindberg and Grimmond 2011<ref name="FL2011"/>)
 
|-
 
||2 ||No vegetation scheme used
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row"| DSMPath
 
| scope="row"| -
 
| colspan="2" | Path to Digital Surface Models (DSM).
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row"| DSMname
 
| scope="row"| -
 
| colspan="2" | Ground and Building DSM
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row"| CDSMname
 
| scope="row"| -
 
| colspan="2" | Vegetation canopy DSM
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row"| TDSMname
 
| scope="row"| -
 
| colspan="2" | Vegetation trunk zone DSM
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row"| TransMin
 
| scope="row"| -
 
| colspan="2" | Tranmissivity of K through deciduous vegetation (leaf on)
 
* Recommended value: 0.02 (Konarska et al. 2014<ref name="Ko14">Konarska J, Lindberg F, Larsson A, Thorsson S and Holmer B (2014) Transmissivity of solar radiation through crowns of single urban trees—application for outdoor thermal comfort modelling. Theor Appl Climatol 117:363–376.</ref>)
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row"| TransMax
 
| scope="row"| -
 
| colspan="2" | Tranmissivity of K through deciduous vegetation (leaf off)
 
* Recommended value: 0.50 (Konarska et al. 2014<ref name="Ko14"/>)
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row"| SVFPath
 
| scope="row"| -
 
| colspan="2" | Path to SVFs matrices (See Lindberg and Grimmond (2011)<ref name="FL2011"/> for details)
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row"| SVFSuffix
 
| scope="row"| -
 
| colspan="2" | Suffix used (if any)
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row"| BuildingName
 
| scope="row"| -
 
| colspan="2" | Boolean matrix for locations of building pixels
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row"| row
 
| scope="row"| -
 
| colspan="2" | X coordinate for point of interest. Here all variables from the model will written to SOLWEIGpoiOUT.txt
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row"| col
 
| scope="row"| -
 
| colspan="2" | Y coordinate for point of interest. Here all variables from the model will written to SOLWEIGpoiOUT.txt
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row" rowspan="3"| onlyglobal
 
| scope="row" rowspan="3"| -
 
| colspan="2" | Global radiation
 
|-
 
||0 || Diffuse and direct shortwave radiation taken from met forcing file.
 
|-
 
||1 || Diffuse and direct shortwave radiation calculated from Reindl et al. (1990)<ref name="Re90"> Reindl DT, Beckman WA and Duffie JA (1990) Diffuse fraction correlation. Sol Energy 45:1–7.</ref>
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row" rowspan="2"| SOLWEIGpoi_out
 
| scope="row" rowspan="2"| -
 
| colspan="2" | Write output variables at point of interest (see below)
 
|-
 
||0 || No POI output
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row" rowspan="3"| Tmrt_out
 
| scope="row" rowspan="3"| -
 
| colspan="2" |
 
|-
 
||0 || No grid output
 
|-
 
||1 || Write grid to file (saves as ERSI Ascii grid)
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row" rowspan="3"| Lup2d_out
 
| scope="row" rowspan="3"| -
 
| colspan="2" |
 
|-
 
||0 || No grid output
 
|-
 
||1 || Write grid to file (saves as ERSI Ascii grid)
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row" rowspan="3"| Ldown2d_out
 
| scope="row" rowspan="3"| -
 
| colspan="2" |
 
|-
 
||0 || No grid output
 
|-
 
||1 || Write grid to file (saves as ERSI Ascii grid)
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row" rowspan="3"| Kup2d_out
 
| scope="row" rowspan="3"| -
 
| colspan="2" |
 
|-
 
||0 || No grid output
 
|-
 
||1 || Write grid to file (saves as ERSI Ascii grid)
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row" rowspan="3"| Kdown2d_out
 
| scope="row" rowspan="3"| -
 
| colspan="2" |
 
|-
 
||0 || No grid output
 
|-
 
||1 || Write grid to file (saves as ERSI Ascii grid)
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row" rowspan="3"| GVF_out
 
| scope="row" rowspan="3"| -
 
| colspan="2" |
 
|-
 
||0 || No grid output
 
|-
 
||1 || Write grid to file (saves as ERSI Ascii grid)
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row" rowspan="3"| SOLWEIG_ldown
 
| scope="row" rowspan="3"| -
 
| colspan="2" |
 
|-
 
||0 || Not active (use SUEWS to estimate Ldown above canyon)
 
|-
 
||1 || Use SOLWEIG to estimate Ldown above canyon
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row"| OutInterval
 
| scope="row"| min
 
| colspan="2" | Output interval. Set to 60 in current version.
 
|-
 
 
| scope="row" rowspan="2"| RunForGrid
 
| scope="row" rowspan="2"| -
 
| colspan="2" | Grid for which SOLWEIG should be run.
 
|-
 
||-999 || All grids (use with care)
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
==Output files== <!--T:272-->
 
 
===Error messages: problems.txt=== <!--T:273-->
 
If there are problems running the program serious error messages will be written to problems.txt.
 
*Serious problems will usually cause the program to stop after writing the error message. If this is the case, the last line of problems.txt will contain a non-zero number (the error code).
 
*If the program runs successfully, problems.txt file ends with
 
Run completed.
 
0
 
 
<!--T:274-->
 
SUEWS has a large number of error messages included to try to capture common errors to help the user determine what the problem is. If you encounter an error that does not provide an error message please capture the details so we can hopefully provide better error messages in future.
 
 
<!--T:275-->
 
See [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]] section for help solving problems.
 
If the file paths are not correct the program will return an error when run (see [[#Preparing to run the model|Preparing to run the model]]).
 
 
===Error messages: warnings.txt===
 
*If the program encounters a more minor issue it will not stop but a warning may be written to warnings.txt. It is advisable to check the warnings to ensure there is not a more serious problem.
 
* The warnings.txt file can be large (over several GBs) given warning messages are written out during a large scale simulation, you can use <code> tail</code>/<code>head</code> to view the ending/starting part without opening the whole file on Unix-like systems (Linux/mac OS), which may slow down your system.
 
*To prevent warnings.txt from being written, set '''SuppressWarnings''' to 1 in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]].
 
*Warning messages are usually written with a grid number, timestamp and error count. If the problem occurs in the initial stages (i.e. before grid numbers and timestamps are assigned, these are printed as 00000).
 
 
===Summary of model parameters: SS_FileChoices.txt===
 
 
For each run, the model parameters specified in the input files are written out to the file SS_FileChoices.txt.
 
 
===Model output files=== <!--T:276-->
 
 
====SSss_YYYY_TT.txt ==== <!--T:277-->
 
SUEWS produces the main output file (SSss_YYYY_tt.txt) with time resolution (TT min) set by '''ResolutionFilesOut''' in [[#RunControl|RunControl]].
 
 
Before these main data files are written out, SUEWS provides a summary of the column names, units and variables included in the file Ss_YYYY_TT_OutputFormat.txt (one file per run).
 
 
The variables included in the main output file are determined according to '''WriteOutOption''' set in [[#RunControl.nml|RunControl.nml]].
 
 
<!--T:277-->
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
!Column
 
!Name
 
!WriteOutOption
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|1 ||Year || 0,1,2 || Year [YYYY]
 
|-
 
|2 ||DOY || 0,1,2 || Day of year [DOY]
 
|-
 
|3 ||Hour || 0,1,2 || Hour [H]
 
|-
 
|4 ||Min || 0,1,2 || Minute [M]
 
|-
 
|5 ||Dectime || 0,1,2 || Decimal time [-]
 
|-
 
 
|6 ||Kdown || 0,1,2 ||Incoming shortwave radiation [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|7 ||Kup || 0,1,2 ||Outgoing shortwave radiation [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|8 ||Ldown || 0,1,2 ||Incoming longwave radiation [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|9 ||Lup || 0,1,2 ||Outgoing longwave radiation [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
 
|10 ||Tsurf || 0,1,2 ||Bulk surface temperature [°C]
 
|-
 
 
|11 ||QN || 0,1,2 ||Net all-wave radiation [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
 
|-
 
|12 ||QF || 0,1,2 ||Anthropogenic heat flux [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|13 ||QS || 0,1,2 ||Storage heat flux [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|14 ||QH || 0,1,2 ||Sensible heat flux (calculated using SUEWS) [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|15 ||QE || 0,1,2 ||Latent heat flux (calculated using SUEWS) [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
 
|16 ||QHlumps || 0,1 ||Sensible heat flux (calculated using LUMPS) [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|17 ||QElumps || 0,1 ||Latent heat flux (calculated using LUMPS) [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|18 ||QHresis || 0,1 ||Sensible heat flux (calculated using resistance method) [W m<sup>-2</sup>] '''Do not use in v2017b!'''
 
|-
 
 
|19 ||Rain || 0,1,2 || Rain [mm]
 
|-
 
|20 ||Irr || 0,1,2 || Irrigation [mm]
 
|-
 
|21 ||Evap || 0,1,2 ||Evaporation [mm]
 
|-
 
|22 ||RO || 0,1,2 ||Runoff [mm]
 
|-
 
|23 ||TotCh || 0,1,2 || Change in surface and soil moisture stores [mm]
 
|-
 
 
|24 ||SurfCh || 0,1,2 ||Change in surface moisture store [mm]
 
|-
 
|25 ||State || 0,1,2 ||Surface wetness state [mm]
 
|-
 
|26 ||NWtrState || 0,1,2 ||Surface wetness state (for non-water surfaces) [mm]
 
|-
 
|27 ||Drainage || 0,1,2 ||Drainage [mm]
 
|-
 
|28 ||SMD || 0,1,2 ||Soil moisture deficit [mm]
 
|-
 
 
|29 || FlowCh || 0,1 ||Additional flow into water body [mm]
 
|-
 
|30 || AddWater || 0,1 ||Additional water flow received from other grids [mm]
 
|-
 
 
 
|31 ||ROSoil || 0,1 ||Runoff to soil (sub-surface) [mm]
 
|-
 
|32 ||ROPipe || 0,1 ||Runoff to pipes [mm]
 
|-
 
|33 ||ROImp || 0,1 ||Above ground runoff over impervious surfaces [mm]
 
|-
 
|34 ||ROVeg || 0,1 ||Above ground runoff over vegetated surfaces [mm]
 
|-
 
|35 ||ROWater || 0,1 ||Runoff for water body [mm]
 
|-
 
 
|36 ||WUInt || 0,1 ||Internal water use [mm]
 
|-
 
|37 ||WUEveTr || 0,1 ||Water use for irrigation of evergreen trees [mm]
 
|-
 
|38 ||WUDecTr|| 0,1 ||Water use for irrigation of deciduous trees [mm]
 
|-
 
|39 ||WUGrass || 0,1 ||Water use for irrigation of grass [mm]
 
|-
 
 
|40 ||SMDPaved || 0,1 ||Soil moisture deficit for paved surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|41 ||SMDBldgs || 0,1 ||Soil moisture deficit for building surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|42 ||SMDEveTr || 0,1 ||Soil moisture deficit for evergreen surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|43 ||SMDDecTr || 0,1 ||Soil moisture deficit for deciduous surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|44 ||SMDGrass || 0,1 ||Soil moisture deficit for grass surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|45 ||SMDBSoil || 0,1 ||Soil moisture deficit for bare soil surface [mm]
 
|-
 
 
|46 ||StPaved || 0,1 ||Surface wetness state for paved surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|47 ||StBldgs || 0,1 ||Surface wetness state for building surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|48 ||StEveTr || 0,1 ||Surface wetness state for evergreen tree surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|49 ||StDecTr || 0,1 ||Surface wetness state for deciduous tree surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|50 ||StGrass || 0,1 ||Surface wetness state for grass surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|51 ||StBSoil || 0,1 ||Surface wetness state for bare soil surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|52 ||StWater || 0,1 ||Surface wetness state for water surface [mm]
 
|-
 
 
|53 ||Zenith || 0,1,2 || Solar zenith angle [°]
 
|-
 
|54 ||Azimuth || 0,1,2 || Solar azimuth angle [°]
 
|-
 
 
|55 ||AlbBulk || 0,1,2 || Bulk albedo [-]
 
|-
 
|56 ||Fcld || 0,1,2 || Cloud fraction [-]
 
|-
 
 
|57 ||LAI || 0,1,2 || Leaf area index [m<sup>2</sup> m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
 
|58 ||z0m || 0,1 ||Roughness length for momentum [m]
 
|-
 
|59 ||zdm || 0,1 ||Zero-plane displacement height [m]
 
|-
 
 
|60 ||ustar || 0,1,2 ||Friction velocity [m s<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|61 ||Lob || 0,1,2 ||Obukhov length [m]
 
|-
 
|62 ||ra || 0,1 ||Aerodynamic resistance [s m<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|63 ||rs || 0,1 ||Surface resistance [s m<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
 
|64 ||Fc || 0,1,2 ||CO2 flux [umol m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>] '''Do not use in v2017b!'''
 
|-
 
|65 ||FcPhoto || 0,1 ||CO2 flux from photosynthesis [umol m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>] '''Do not use in v2017b!'''
 
|-
 
|66 ||FcRespi || 0,1 ||CO2 flux from respiration [umol m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>] '''Do not use in v2017b!'''
 
|-
 
|67 ||FcMetab || 0,1 ||CO2 flux from metabolism [umol m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>] '''Do not use in v2017b!'''
 
|-
 
|68 ||FcTraff || 0,1 ||CO2 flux from traffic [umol m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>] '''Do not use in v2017b!'''
 
|-
 
|69 ||FcBuild || 0,1 ||CO2 flux from buildings [umol m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>] '''Do not use in v2017b!'''
 
|-
 
 
|70 ||QNSnowFr || 1 ||Net all-wave radiation for snow-free area [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|71 ||QNSnow || 1 ||Net all-wave radiation for snow area [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|72 ||AlbSnow || 1 ||Snow albedo [-]
 
|-
 
 
|73 ||QM || 1 ||Snow-related heat exchange [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|74 ||QMFreeze || 1 ||Internal energy change [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|75 ||QMRain || 1 ||Heat released by rain on snow [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
 
|76 ||SWE || 1 ||Snow water equivalent [mm]
 
|-
 
|77 ||MeltWater || 1 ||Meltwater [mm]
 
|-
 
|78 ||MeltWStore || 1 ||Meltwater store [mm]
 
|-
 
|79 ||SnowCh || 1 ||Change in snow pack [mm]
 
|-
 
 
|80 ||SnowRPaved || 1 ||Snow removed from paved surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|81 ||SnowRBldgs || 1 ||Snow removed from building surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|82 ||T2 ||0,1,2 ||Air temperature at 2 m agl [°C]
 
|-
 
|83 ||Q2 ||0,1,2 ||Air specific humidity at 2 m agl [g kg<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|84 ||U10 ||0,1,2 ||Wind speed at 10 m agl [m s<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
 
|}
 
 
====SSss_YYYY_nn_TT.nc (when ncMode=1 in RunControl) ==== <!--T:278-->
 
SUEWS can also produce the main output file in netCDF format by setting ncMode=1 (set in [[#RunControl|RunControl]]).
 
 
As the date and time information is incorporated in the netCDF output as separate dimension, the first five variables in the normal text output file (in .txt) are not included in the netCDF output but other variables are all kept.
 
 
N.B., considering the file size limit by the classic netCDF format, the output frequency is determined automatically by the internal SUEWS program setting to avoid the oversize problem in the netCDF files.
 
 
====SSss_DailyState.txt==== <!--T:281-->
 
Contains information about the state of the surface and soil and vegetation parameters at a time resolution of one day. One file is written for each grid so it may contain multiple years.
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
!Column
 
!Name
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|1 ||iy ||Year [YYYY]
 
|-
 
|2 ||id ||Day of year [DOY]
 
|-
 
|3 ||HDD1_h ||Heating degree days [°C]
 
|-
 
|4 ||HDD2_c ||Cooling degree days [°C]
 
|-
 
|5 ||HDD3_Tmean ||Average daily air temperature [°C]
 
|-
 
|6 ||HDT4_T5d ||5-day running-mean air temperature [°C]
 
|-
 
|7 ||P/day ||Daily total precipitation [mm]
 
|-
 
|8 ||DaysSR ||Days since rain [days]
 
|-
 
|9 ||GDD1_g ||Growing degree days for leaf growth [°C]
 
|-
 
|10 ||GDD2_s ||Growing degree days for senescence [°C]
 
|-
 
|11 ||GDD3_Tmin  ||Daily minimum temperature [°C]
 
|-
 
|12 ||GDD4_Tmax ||Daily maximum temperature [°C]
 
|-
 
|13 ||GDD5_DayLHrs ||Day length [h]
 
|-
 
|14 ||LAI_EveTr ||Leaf area index of evergreen trees [m<sup>-2</sup> m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|15 ||LAI_DecTr ||Leaf area index of deciduous trees [m<sup>-2</sup> m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|16 ||LAI_Grass ||Leaf area index of grass [m<sup>-2</sup> m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|17 ||DecidCap ||Moisture storage capacity of deciduous trees [mm]
 
|-
 
|18 ||Porosity ||Porosity of deciduous trees [-]
 
|-
 
|19 ||AlbEveTr ||Albedo of evergreen trees [-]
 
|-
 
|20 ||AlbDecTr ||Albedo of deciduous trees [-]
 
|-
 
|21 ||AlbGrass ||Albedo of grass [-]
 
|-
 
|22 ||WU_EveTr(1) ||Total water use for evergreen trees [mm]
 
|-
 
|23 ||WU_EveTr(2) ||Automatic water use for evergreen trees [mm]
 
|-
 
|24 ||WU_EveTr(3) ||Manual water use for evergreen trees [mm]
 
|-
 
|25 ||WU_DecTr(1) ||Total water use for deciduous trees [mm]
 
|-
 
|26 ||WU_DecTr(2) ||Automatic water use for deciduous trees [mm]
 
|-
 
|27 ||WU_DecTr(3) ||Manual water use for deciduous trees [mm]
 
|-
 
|28 ||WU_Grass(1) ||Total water use for grass [mm]
 
|-
 
|29 ||WU_Grass(2) ||Automatic water use for grass [mm]
 
|-
 
|30 ||WU_Grass(3) ||Manual water use for grass [mm]
 
|-
 
|31 ||deltaLAI ||Change in leaf area index (normalised 0-1) [-]
 
|-
 
|32 ||LAIlumps ||Leaf area index used in LUMPS (normalised 0-1) [-]
 
|-
 
|33 ||AlbSnow ||Snow albedo [-]
 
|-
 
|34 ||DensSnow_Paved ||Snow density - paved surface [kg m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|35 ||DensSnow_Bldgs ||Snow density - building surface [kg m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|36 ||DensSnow_EveTr ||Snow density - evergreen surface [kg m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|37 ||DensSnow_DecTr ||Snow density - deciduous surface [kg m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|38 ||DensSnow_Grass ||Snow density - grass surface [kg m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|39 ||DensSnow_BSoil ||Snow density - bare soil surface [kg m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|40 ||DensSnow_Water ||Snow density - water surface [kg m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
====InitialConditionsSSss_YYYY.nml====
 
At the end of the model run (or the end of each year in the model run) a new InitialConditions file is written out (to the input folder) for each grid, see [[#InitialConditionsSSss_YYYY.nml|InitialConditionsSSss_YYYY.nml]]
 
 
====SSss_YYYY_snow_TT.txt ==== <!--T:278-->
 
SUEWS produces a separate output file for snow (when snowUse = 1 in RunControl.nml) with details for each surface type.
 
 
<!--T:279-->
 
File format of SSss_YYYY_snow_60.txt
 
 
<!--T:280-->
 
{|class="wikitable sortable"
 
!Column
 
!Name
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|1 ||iy ||Year [YYYY]
 
|-
 
|2 ||id ||Day of year [DOY]
 
|-
 
|3 ||it ||Hour [H]
 
|-
 
|4 ||imin ||Minute [M]
 
|-
 
|5 ||dectime ||Decimal time [-]
 
|-
 
|6 ||SWE_Paved ||Snow water equivalent – paved surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|7 ||SWE_Bldgs ||Snow water equivalent – building surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|8 ||SWE_EveTr ||Snow water equivalent – evergreen surface  [mm]
 
|-
 
|9 ||SWE_DecTr ||Snow water equivalent – deciduous surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|10 ||SWE_Grass ||Snow water equivalent – grass surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|11 ||SWE_BSoil ||Snow water equivalent – bare soil surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|12 ||SWE_Water ||Snow water equivalent – water surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|13 ||Mw_Paved ||Meltwater – paved surface [mm h<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|14 ||Mw_Bldgs ||Meltwater – building surface [mm h<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|15 ||Mw_EveTr ||Meltwater – evergreen surface [mm h<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|16 ||Mw_DecTr ||Meltwater – deciduous surface [mm h<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|17 ||Mw_Grass ||Meltwater – grass surface [mm h<sup>-1</sup>1]
 
|-
 
|18 ||Mw_BSoil ||Meltwater – bare soil surface [mm h<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|19 ||Mw_Water ||Meltwater – water surface [mm h<sup>-1</sup>]
 
|-
 
|20 ||Qm_Paved ||Snowmelt-related heat – paved surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|21 ||Qm_Bldgs ||Snowmelt-related heat – building surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|22 ||Qm_EveTr ||Snowmelt-related heat – evergreen surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|23 ||Qm_DecTr ||Snowmelt-related heat – deciduous surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|24 ||Qm_Grass ||Snowmelt-related heat – grass surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|25 ||Qm_BSoil ||Snowmelt-related heat – bare soil surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|26 ||Qm_Water ||Snowmelt-related heat – water surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|27 ||Qa_Paved ||Advective heat – paved surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|28 ||Qa_Bldgs ||Advective heat – building surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|29 ||Qa_EveTr ||Advective heat – evergreen surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|30 ||Qa_DecTr ||Advective heat – deciduous surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|31 ||Qa_Grass ||Advective heat – grass surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|32 ||Qa_BSoil ||Advective heat – bare soil surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|33 ||Qa_Water ||Advective heat – water surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|34 ||QmFr_Paved ||Heat related to freezing of surface store – paved surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|35 ||QmFr_Bldgs ||Heat related to freezing of surface store – building surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|36 ||QmFr_EveTr ||Heat related to freezing of surface store – evergreen surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|37 ||QmFr_DecTr ||Heat related to freezing of surface store – deciduous surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|38 ||QmFr_Grass ||Heat related to freezing of surface store – grass surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|39 ||QmFr_BSoil ||Heat related to freezing of surface store – bare soil surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|40 ||QmFr_Water ||Heat related to freezing of surface store – water [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|41 ||fr_Paved ||Fraction of snow – paved surface [-]
 
|-
 
|42 ||fr_Bldgs ||Fraction of snow – building surface [-]
 
|-
 
|43 ||fr_EveTr ||Fraction of snow – evergreen surface [-]
 
|-
 
|44 ||fr_DecTr ||Fraction of snow – deciduous surface [-]
 
|-
 
|45 ||fr_Grass ||Fraction of snow – grass surface [-]
 
|-
 
|46 ||Fr_BSoil ||Fraction of snow – bare soil surface [-]
 
|-
 
|47 ||RainSn_Paved ||Rain on snow – paved surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|48 ||RainSn_Bdgs ||Rain on snow – building surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|49 ||RainSn_EveTr ||Rain on snow – evergreen surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|50 ||RainSn_DecTr ||Rain on snow – deciduous surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|51 ||RainSn_Grass ||Rain on snow – grass surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|52 ||RainSn_BSoil ||Rain on snow – bare soil surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|53 ||RainSn_Water ||Rain on snow – water surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|54 ||qn_PavedSnow ||Net all-wave radiation – paved surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|55 ||qn_BldgsSnow ||Net all-wave radiation – building surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|56 ||qn_EveTrSnow ||Net all-wave radiation – evergreen surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|57 ||qn_DecTrSnow ||Net all-wave radiation – deciduous surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|58 ||qn_GrassSnow ||Net all-wave radiation – grass surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|59 ||qn_BSoilSnow ||Net all-wave radiation – bare soil surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|60 ||qn_WaterSnow ||Net all-wave radiation – water surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|61 ||kup_PavedSnow ||Reflected shortwave radiation – paved surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|62 ||kup_BldgsSnow ||Reflected shortwave radiation – building surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|63 ||kup_EveTrSnow ||Reflected shortwave radiation – evergreen surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|64 ||kup_DecTrSnow ||Reflected shortwave radiation – deciduous surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|65 ||kup_GrassSnow ||Reflected shortwave radiation – grass surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|66 ||kup_BSoilSnow ||Reflected shortwave radiation – bare soil surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|67 ||kup_WaterSnow ||Reflected shortwave radiation – water surface [W m<sup>-2</sup>]
 
|-
 
|68 ||frMelt_Paved ||Amount of freezing melt water – paved surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|69 ||frMelt_Bldgs ||Amount of freezing melt water – building surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|70 ||frMelt_EveTr ||Amount of freezing melt water – evergreen surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|71 ||frMelt_DecTr ||Amount of freezing melt water – deciduous surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|72 ||frMelt_Grass ||Amount of freezing melt water – grass surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|73 ||frMelt_BSoil ||Amount of freezing melt water – bare soil surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|74 ||frMelt_Water ||Amount of freezing melt water – water surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|75 ||MwStore_Paved ||Melt water store – paved surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|76 ||MwStore_Bldgs ||Melt water store – building surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|77 ||MwStore_EveTt ||Melt water store – evergreen surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|78 ||MwStore_DecTr ||Melt water store – deciduous surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|79 ||MwStore_Grass ||Melt water store – grass surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|80 ||MwStore_BSoil ||Melt water store – bare soil surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|81 ||MwStore_Water ||Melt water store – water surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|82 ||DensSnow_Paved ||Snow density – paved surface [kg m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|83 ||DensSnow_Bldgs ||Snow density – building surface [kg m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|84 ||DensSnow_EveTr ||Snow density – evergreen surface [kg m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|85 ||DensSnow_DecTr ||Snow density – deciduous surface [kg m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|86 ||DensSnow_Grass ||Snow density – grass surface [kg m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|87 ||DensSnow_BSoil ||Snow density – bare soil surface [kg m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|88 ||DensSnow_Water ||Snow density – water surface [kg m<sup>-3</sup>]
 
|-
 
|89 ||Sd_Paved ||Snow depth – paved surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|90 ||Sd_Bldgs ||Snow depth – building surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|91 ||Sd_EveTr ||Snow depth – evergreen surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|92 ||Sd_DecTr ||Snow depth – deciduous surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|93 ||Sd_Grass ||Snow depth – grass surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|94 ||Sd_BSoil ||Snow depth – bare soil surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|95 ||Sd_Water ||Snow depth – water surface [mm]
 
|-
 
|96 ||Tsnow_Paved ||Snow surface temperature – paved surface [°C]
 
|-
 
|97 ||Tsnow_Bldgs ||Snow surface temperature – building surface [°C]
 
|-
 
|98 ||Tsnow_EveTr ||Snow surface temperature – evergreen surface [°C]
 
|-
 
|99 ||Tsnow_DecTr ||Snow surface temperature – deciduous surface [°C]
 
|-
 
|100 ||Tsnow_Grass ||Snow surface temperature – grass surface [°C]
 
|-
 
|101 ||Tsnow_BSoil ||Snow surface temperature – bare soil surface [°C]
 
|-
 
|102 ||Tsnow_Water ||Snow surface temperature – water surface [°C]
 
|}
 
 
====SSss_YYYY_BL.txt==== <!--T:282-->
 
Meteorological variables modelled by CBL portion of the model are output in to this file created for each day with time step (see section CBL Input).
 
 
<!--T:283-->
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
!Col
 
!Name 
 
!Description
 
!Units
 
|-
 
|1 ||iy ||Year [YYYY] ||
 
|-
 
|2 ||id ||Day of year [DoY] ||
 
|-
 
|3 ||it ||Hour [H] ||
 
|-
 
|4 ||imin ||Minute [M] ||
 
|-
 
|5 ||dectime ||Decimal time [-] ||
 
|-
 
|6 ||zi    ||Convectibe boundary layer height ||m
 
|-
 
|7 ||Theta ||Potential temperature in the inertial sublayer ||K
 
|-
 
|8 ||Q ||Specific humidity in the inertial sublayer ||g kg<sup>-1</sup>
 
|-
 
|9 ||theta+ ||Potential temperature just above the CBL ||K
 
|-
 
|10 ||q+ ||Specific humidity just above the CBL ||g kg<sup>-1</sup>
 
|-
 
|11 ||Temp_C ||Air temperature ||°C
 
|-
 
|12 ||RH ||Relative humidity  ||%
 
|-
 
|13 ||QH_use ||Sensible heat flux used for calculation  ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|14 ||QE_use  ||Latent heat flux used for calculation ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|15 ||Press_hPa ||Pressure used for calculation ||hPa
 
|-
 
|16 ||avu1 ||Wind speed used for calculation ||m s<sup>-1</sup>
 
|-
 
|17 ||ustar ||Friction velocity used for calculation ||m s<sup>-1</sup>
 
|-
 
|18 ||avdens ||Air density used for calculation ||kg m<sup>-3</sup>
 
|-
 
|19 ||lv_J_kg ||Latent heat of vaporization used for calculation ||J kg<sup>-1</sup>
 
|-
 
|20 ||avcp ||Specific heat capacity used for calculation ||J kg<sup>-1</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>
 
|-
 
|21 ||gamt ||Vertical gradient of potential temperature ||K m<sup>-1</sup>
 
|-
 
|22 ||gamq ||Vertical gradient of specific humidity ||kg kg<sup>-1</sup> m<sup>-1</sup>
 
|}
 
 
====SOLWEIGpoiOut.txt==== <!--T:284-->
 
Calculated variables from POI, point of interest (row, col) stated in SOLWEIGinput.nml.
 
 
<!--T:285-->
 
SOLWEIG model output file format: SOLWEIGpoiOUT.txt
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
!Col
 
!Name 
 
!Description
 
!Units
 
|-
 
|1 ||id ||Day of year ||
 
|-
 
|2 ||dectime ||Decimal time ||
 
|-
 
|3 ||azimuth ||Azimuth angle of the Sun ||°
 
|-
 
|4 ||altitude ||Altitude angle of the Sun ||°
 
|-
 
|5 ||GlobalRad ||Input Kdn ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|6 ||DiffuseRad ||Diffuse shortwave radiation ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|7 ||DirectRad ||Direct shortwave radiation ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|8 ||Kdown2d ||Incoming shortwave radiation at POI ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|-
 
||9 ||Kup2d ||Outgoing shortwave radiation at POI  ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|-
 
||10 ||Ksouth ||Shortwave radiation from south at POI ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|11 ||Kwest ||Shortwave radiation from west at POI ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|12 ||Knorth ||Shortwave radiation from north at POI ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|13 ||Keast ||Shortwave radiation from east at POI ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|14 ||Ldown2d ||Incoming longwave radiation at POI ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|15 ||Lup2d ||Outgoing longwave radiation at POI ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|16 ||Lsouth  ||Longwave radiation from south at POI ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|17 ||Lwest ||Longwave radiation from west at POI ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|18 ||Lnorth  ||Longwave radiation from north at POI ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|19 ||Least ||Longwave radiation from east at POI ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|20 ||Tmrt ||Mean Radiant Temperature ||°C
 
|-
 
 
<!--T:286-->
 
|21 ||I0 ||theoretical value of maximum incoming solar radiation  ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|22 ||CI ||clearness index for Ldown (Lindberg et al. 2008) ||
 
|-
 
|23 ||gvf ||Ground view factor (Lindberg and Grimmond 2011) ||
 
|-
 
|24 ||shadow ||Shadow value (0= shadow, 1 = sun) ||
 
|-
 
|25 ||svf ||Sky View Factor from ground and buildings ||
 
|-
 
|26 ||svfbuveg ||Sky View Factor from ground, buildings and vegetation ||
 
|-
 
|27 ||Ta ||Air temperature ||°C
 
|-
 
|28 ||Tg ||Surface temperature ||°C
 
|}
 
 
====SSss_YYYY_ESTM_TT.txt==== <!--T:287-->
 
If the ESTM model option is run, the following output file is created. '''Note: First time steps of storage output could give NaN values during the initial converging phase.'''
 
 
ESTM output file format
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
!Col
 
!Name 
 
!Description
 
!Units
 
|-
 
|1 ||iy ||Year ||
 
|-
 
|2 ||id ||Day of year ||
 
|-
 
|3 ||it ||Hour ||
 
|-
 
|4 ||imin ||Minute ||
 
|-
 
|5 ||dectime ||Decimal time ||
 
|-
 
|6 ||QSnet ||Net storage heat flux (QSwall+QSground+QS) ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
 
<!--T:288-->
 
|-
 
|7 ||QSair ||Storage heat flux into air ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|8 ||QSwall ||Storage heat flux into wall ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|9 ||QSroof ||Storage heat flux into roof ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|10 ||QSground ||Storage heat flux into ground ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|11 ||QSibld ||Storage heat flux into internal elements in buildling ||W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
|-
 
|12 ||Twall1 ||Temperature in the first layer of wall (outer-most) ||K
 
|-
 
|13 ||Twall2 ||Temperature in the first layer of wall ||K
 
|-
 
|14 ||Twall3 ||Temperature in the first layer of wall ||K
 
|-
 
|15 ||Twall4 ||Temperature in the first layer of wall ||K
 
|-
 
|16 ||Twall5 ||Temperature in the first layer of wall (inner-most) ||K
 
|-
 
|17 ||Troof1 ||Temperature in the first layer of roof (outer-most) ||K
 
|-
 
|18 ||Troof2 ||Temperature in the first layer of roof ||K
 
|-
 
|19 ||Troof3 ||Temperature in the first layer of roof ||K
 
|-
 
|20 ||Troof4 ||Temperature in the first layer of roof ||K
 
|-
 
|21 ||Troof5 ||Temperature in the first layer of ground (inner-most) ||K
 
|-
 
|22 ||Tground1 ||Temperature in the first layer of ground (outer-most) ||K
 
|-
 
|23 ||Tground2 ||Temperature in the first layer of ground ||K
 
|-
 
|24 ||Tground3 ||Temperature in the first layer of ground ||K
 
|-
 
|25 ||Tground4 ||Temperature in the first layer of ground ||K
 
|-
 
|26 ||Tground5 ||Temperature in the first layer of ground (inner-most) ||K
 
|-
 
|27 ||Tibld1 ||Temperature in the first layer of internal elements ||K
 
|-
 
|28 ||Tibld2 ||Temperature in the first layer of internal elements ||K
 
|-
 
|29 ||Tibld3 ||Temperature in the first layer of internal elements ||K
 
|-
 
|30 ||Tibld4 ||Temperature in the first layer of internal elements ||K
 
|-
 
|31 ||Tibld5 ||Temperature in the first layer of internal elements ||K
 
|-
 
|32 ||Tabld ||Air temperature in buildings ||K
 
|}
 
 
==Troubleshooting== <!--T:289-->
 
====How to create a directory?====
 
: please search the web using this phrase if you do not know how to create a folder or directory
 
====How to unzip a file====
 
: please search the web using this phrase if you do not know how to unzip a file
 
====A text editor====
 
: is a program to edit plain text files. If you search on the web using the phrase ‘text editor’ you will find numerous programs. These include for example, NotePad, EditPad, Text Pad etc
 
 
====Command prompt====
 
: From Start select run –type cmd – this will open a window. Change directory to the location of where you stored your files. The following website may be helpful if you do not know what a command prompt is: http://dosprompt.info/
 
 
====Day of year [DOY]====
 
: January 1st is day 1, February 1st is day 32. If you search on the web using the phrase ‘day of year calendar’ you will find tables that allow rapid conversions. Remember that after February 28th DOY will be different between leap years and non-leap years.
 
 
====ESTM output====
 
First time steps of storage output could give NaN values during the initial converging phase.
 
 
===First things to Check if the program seems to have problems===
 
*Check the problems.txt file.
 
*Check file options – in RunControl.nml.
 
*Look in the output directory for the SS_FileChoices.txt. This allows you to check all options that were used in the run. You may want to compare it with the original version supplied with the model.
 
*Note there can not be missing time steps in the data. If you need help with this you may want to checkout [http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP UMEP]
 
 
====A pop-up saying “file path not found"==== <!--T:291-->
 
This means the program cannot find the file paths defined in RunControl.nml file. Possible solutions:
 
*Check that you have created the folder that you specified in RunControl.nml.
 
*Check does the output directory exist?
 
*Check that you have a single or double quotes around the FileInputPath, FileOutputPath and FileCode
 
 
====“%sat_vap_press.f temp=0.0000    pressure    dectime”====
 
Temperature is zero in the calculation of water vapour pressure parameterization.
 
*You don’t need to worry if the temperature should be (is) 0°C.
 
*If it should not be 0°C this suggests that there is a problem with the data.
 
 
====%T changed to fit limits====
 
*[TL =0.1]/ [TL =39.9] You may want to change the coefficients for surface resistance. If you have data from these temperatures, we would happily determine them.
 
 
====%Iteration loop stopped for too stable conditions.====
 
*[zL]/[USTAR] This warning indicates that the atmospheric stability gets above 2. In these conditions [http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Monin-obukhov_similarity_theory MO theory] is not necessarily valid. The iteration loop to calculate the [http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Obukhov_length Obukhov length] and [http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Friction_velocity friction velocity] is stopped so that stability does not get too high values. This is something you do not need to worry as it does not mean wrong input data.
 
 
====“Reference to undefined variable, array element or function result”====
 
*Parameter(s) missing from input files.
 
 
See also the error messages provided in problems.txt and warnings.txt
 
 
====Email list====
 
*SUEWS email list
 
[https://www.lists.reading.ac.uk/mailman/listinfo/met-suews https://www.lists.reading.ac.uk/mailman/listinfo/met-suews]
 
*UMEP email list
 
[https://www.lists.reading.ac.uk/mailman/listinfo/met-umep https://www.lists.reading.ac.uk/mailman/listinfo/met-umep]
 
 
==Acknowledgements== <!--T:293-->
 
*People who have contributed to the development of SUEWS (plus co-authors of papers):
 
*Current contributors:
 
**Prof C.S.B. Grimmond (University of Reading; previously Indiana University, King’s College London, UK); Dr Leena Järvi (University of Helsinki, Finland);  Dr Helen Ward (University of Reading), Dr Fredrik Lindberg (Göteborg University, Sweden), Dr Andy Gabey (Reading), Dr Ting SUN (Reading), Dr Jie PENG (SIMS), Dr Natalie Theeuwes (Reading),
 
*Past Contributors:
 
** Dr Brian Offerle (Indiana University), Dr Thomas Loridan (King’s College London),Dr Shiho Onomura (Göteborg University, Sweden)
 
*Users who have brought things to our attention to improve this manual and the model:
 
**Dr Andy Coutts (Monash University, Australia), Kerry Nice (Monash University, Australia), Shiho Onomura (Göteborg University, Sweden), Dr Stefan Smith (University of Reading, UK), Dr Helen Ward (King’s College London, UK; University of Reading, UK); Duick Young (King’s College London), Dr Ning Zhang (Nanjing University, China)
 
*Funding to support development:
 
**National Science Foundation (USA, BCS-0095284, ATM-0710631), EU Framework 7 BRIDGE (211345), EUf7 emBRACE; UK Met Office; NERC ClearfLo, NERC/Belmont TRUC, Newton/Met Office CSSP-China, H2020 UrbanFluxes, EPSRC LoHCool
 
 
==Notation== <!--T:296-->
 
 
<!--T:297-->
 
{| class="wikitable" !
 
!
 
!Definition
 
|-
 
|''λF''
 
|frontal area index
 
|-
 
|''ΔQS''
 
|storage heat flux
 
|-
 
|BLUEWS
 
|Boundary Layer part of SUEWS
 
[[File:Bluews_1.jpg|frame|
 
Relation between BLUEWS and SUEWS Source: <ref name="Shiho2015" /> ]]
 
|-
 
|Bldgs
 
|Building surface
 
|-
 
|CBL
 
|Convective boundary layer
 
|-
 
|DEM || Digital Elevation Model
 
|-
 
|DSM ||Digital surface model
 
|-
 
|DTM || Digital Terrain Model
 
|-
 
|DecTr
 
|deciduous trees and shrubs
 
|-
 
|EveTr
 
|Evergreen trees and shrubs
 
|-
 
|ESTM
 
|Element Surface Temperature Method (Offerle et al., 2005<ref name="Oaf2005"/>)
 
|-
 
|Grass
 
|Grass surface
 
|-
 
|BSoil
 
|Unmanaged land and/or bare soil
 
|-
 
|L↓
 
|incoming longwave radiation
 
|-
 
|LAI
 
|Leaf area index
 
|-
 
|LUMPS
 
|Local scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (Loridan et al. 2011<ref name="L2011"/>)
 
|-
 
|NARP
 
|Net All-wave Radiation Parameterization (Offerle et al. 2003<ref name="O2003"/>, Loridan et al. 2011<ref name="L2011"/>)
 
|-
 
|OHM
 
|Objective Hysteresis Model (Grimmond et al. 1991<ref name="G91OHM"/>, Grimmond & Oke 1999a<ref name="GO99QS"/>, 2002<ref name="GO2002"/>)
 
|-
 
|Paved
 
|Paved surface
 
|-
 
|Q*
 
|net all-wave radiation
 
|-
 
|QE
 
|latent heat flux
 
|-
 
|QF
 
|anthropogenic heat flux
 
|-
 
|QH
 
|sensible heat flux
 
|-
 
|SOLWEIG
 
|The solar and longwave environmental irradiance geometry model (Lindberg et al. 2008<ref name="FL2008"/>, Lindberg and Grimmond 2011<ref name="FL2011"/>)
 
|-
 
|SVF || |Sky view factor
 
|-
 
|theta ||potential temperature
 
|-
 
|tt ||time step of data
 
|-
 
|UMEP || [http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP Urban Multi-scale Environmental Predictor]
 
|-
 
|Water ||Water surface
 
|-
 
|zi ||Convective boundary layer height
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
==Development, Suggestions and Support== <!--T:302-->
 
#[http://urban-climate.net/umep/DevelopmentGuidelines#Coding_Guidelines| Coding Guidelines] 
 
#Recommendations, Errors, Help/Updates - please join our email list
 
##[https://www.lists.reading.ac.uk/mailman/listinfo/met-suews www.lists.reading.ac.uk/mailman/listinfo/met-suews]
 
##As UMEP has a number of tools to support SUEWS you may want to join that list also [https://www.lists.reading.ac.uk/mailman/listinfo/met-umep www.lists.reading.ac.uk/mailman/listinfo/met-umep]
 
 
==Version History== <!--T:303-->
 
=== New in SUEWS Version 2018a ===
 
 
=== New in SUEWS Version 2017b (released 2 August 2017)===
 
[[:File:SUEWS_V2017b_Manual.pdf|PDF Manual for v2017b]]
 
#Surface-level diagnostics: T2 (air temperature at 2 m agl), Q2 (air specific humidity at 2 m agl) and U10 (wind speed at 10 m agl) added as default output.
 
#Output in netCDF format. Please note this feature is '''NOT''' enabled in the public release due to the dependency of netCDF library. Assistance in enabling this feature may be requested to the development team via [https://www.lists.reading.ac.uk/mailman/listinfo/met-suews SUEWS mail list].
 
#Edits to the manual.
 
#New capabilities being developed, including two new options for calculating storage heat flux (AnOHM, ESTM) and modelling of carbon dioxide fluxes. These are currently under development and '''should not be used''' in v2017b.
 
#Known issues
 
##BLUEWS parameters need to be checked
 
##Observed soil moisture can not be used as an input
 
##Wind direction is not currently downscaled so non -999 values will cause an error.
 
 
=== New in SUEWS Version 2017a (Feb 2017)===
 
#Changes to input file formats (including RunControl.nml and InitialConditions files) to facilitate setting up and running the model. Met forcing files no longer need two rows of -9 at the end to indicate the end of the file.
 
#Changes to output file formats (now option to write out only a subset of variables, rather than all variables).
 
#SUEWS can now disaggregate forcing files to the model time-step and aggregate output at the model time-step to lower resolution. This removes the need for the python wrapper used with previous versions.
 
#InitialConditions format and requirements changed. A single file can now be provided for multiple grids. SUEWS will approximate most (but not all) of the required initial conditions if values are unknown. (However, if detailed information about the initial conditions is known, this can still be provided to and used by SUEWS.)
 
#Leaf area index calculations now use parameters provided for each vegetated surface (previously only the deciduous tree LAI development parameters were applied to all vegetated surfaces).
 
#For compatibility with GIS, '''the sign convention for longitude has been changed'''. Now negative values are to the west, positive values are to the east. Note this appears to have been incorrectly coded in previous versions (but may not necessarily have been problematic).
 
#Storage heat flux calculation adapted for shorter (sub-hourly) model time-step: hysteresis calculation now based on running means over the previous hour.
 
#Improved error handling, including separate files for serious errors (problems.txt) and less critical issues (warnings.txt).
 
#Edits to the manual.
 
#New capabilities being developed, including two new options for calculating storage heat flux (AnOHM, ESTM) and modelling of carbon dioxide fluxes. These are currently under development and '''should not be used''' in v2017a.
 
 
===New in SUEWS Version 2016a (released 21 June 2016)=== <!--T:304-->
 
[[:File:SUEWS_V2016a_Manual.pdf|PDF Manual for v2016a]]
 
#Major changes to the input file formats to facilitate the running of multiple grids and multiple years. Surface characteristics are provided in SiteSelect.txt and other input files are cross-referenced via codes or profile types.
 
#The surface types have been altered:
 
#*Previously, grass surfaces were entered separately as irrigated grass and unirrigated grass surfaces, whilst the ‘unmanaged’ land cover fraction was assumed by the model to behave as unirrigated grass. There is now a single surface type for grass (total for irrigated plus unirrigated) and a new bare soil surface type.
 
#*The proportion of irrigated vegetation must now be specified for grass, evergreen trees and deciduous trees individually.
 
#The entire model now runs at a time step specified by the user. Note that 5 min is strongly recommended. (Previously only the water balance calculations were done at 5 min with the energy balance calculations at 60 min).
 
#Surface conductance now depends on the soil moisture under the vegetated surfaces only (rather than the total soil moisture for the whole study area as previously).
 
#Albedo of evergreen trees and grass surfaces can now change with leaf area index as was previously possible for deciduous trees only.
 
#New suggestions in Troubleshooting section.
 
#Edits to the manual.
 
#CBL model included.
 
#SUEWS has been incorporated into [http://urban-climate.net/umep/UMEP UMEP]
 
 
===New in SUEWS Version 2014b (released 8 October 2014)=== <!--T:305-->
 
[[http://www.met.rdg.ac.uk/micromet/documents/SUEWS_Manual.pdf| V2014 manual]]
 
These affect the run configuration if previously run with older versions of the model:
 
#New input of three additional columns in the Meteorological input file (diffusive and direct solar radiation, and wind direction)
 
# Change of input variables in InitialConditions.nml file. Note we now refer to CT as ET (ie. Evergreen trees rather than coniferous trees)
 
# In GridConnectionsYYYY.txt, the site names should now be without the underscore (e.g “Sm” and not “Sm_”)
 
Other issues:
 
# Number of grid areas that can be modelled (for one grid, one year 120; for one grid two years 80)
 
# Comment about Time interval of input data
 
# Bug fix: Column headers corrected in 5 min file
 
# Bug fix: Surface state 60 min file - corrected to give the last 5 min of the hour (rather than cumulating through the hour)
 
# Bug fix: units in the Horizontal soil water transfer
 
# ErrorHints: More have been added to the problems.txt file.
 
# Manual: new section on running the model appropriately
 
# Manual: notation table updated
 
# Possibility to add snow accumulation and melt:  new paper
 
Järvi L, Grimmond CSB, Taka M, Nordbo A, Setälä H, and Strachan IB 2014: Development of the Surface Urban Energy and Water balance Scheme (SUEWS) for cold climate cities, Geosci. Model Dev. 7, 1691-1711, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-1691-2014.
 
 
===New in SUEWS Version 2014a.1 (released 26 February 2014)=== <!--T:306-->
 
# Please see the large number of changes made in the 2014a release.
 
# This is a minor change to address installing the software.
 
# Minor updates to the manual
 
 
===New in SUEWS Version 2014a (released 21 February 2014)===
 
# Bug fix: External irrigation is calculated as combined from automatic and manual irrigation and during precipitation events the manual irrigation is reduced to 60% of the calculated values. In previous version of the model, the irrigation was in all cases taken 60% of the calculated value, but now this has been fixed.                               
 
# In previous versions of the model, irrigation was only allowed on the irrigated grass surface type. Now, irrigation is also allowed on evergreen and deciduous trees/shrubs surfaces. These are not however treated as separate surfaces, but the amount of irrigation is evenly distributed to the whole surface type in the modelled area. The amount of water is calculated using same equation as for grass surface (equation 5 in Järvi et al. 2011), and the fraction of irrigated trees/shrubs (relative to the area of tree/shrubs surface) is set in the gis file  (See Table 4.11: SSss_YYYY.gis)
 
# In the current version of the model, the user is able to adjust the leaf-on and leaf-off lengths in the FunctionalTypes. nml file. In addition, user can choose whether to use temperature dependent functions or combination of temperature and day length (advised to be used at high-latitudes) 
 
# In the gis-file, there is a new variable Alt that is the area altitude above sea level. If not known exactly use an approximate value.
 
# Snow removal profile has been added to the HourlyProfileSSss_YYYY.txt. Not yet used!
 
# Model time interval has been changed from minutes to seconds. Preferred interval is 3600 seconds (1 hour)
 
# Manual correction: input variable Soil moisture said soil moisture deficit in the manual – word removed
 
# Multiple compiled versions of SUEWS released. There are now users in Apple, Linux and Windows environments. So we will now release compiled versions for more operating systems (section 3).
 
# There are some changes in the output file columns so please, check the respective table of each used output file.
 
# Bug fix: with very small amount of vegetation in an area – impacted Phenology for LUMPS
 
 
===New in SUEWS Version 2013a===
 
# Radiation selection bug fixed
 
# Aerodynamic resistance – when very low  - no longer reverts to neutral (which caused a large jump) – but stays low
 
# Irrigation day of week fixed
 
# New error messages
 
# min file – now includes a decimal time column – see Section 5.4 – Table 5.3
 
===New in SUEWS Version 2012b===
 
# Error message generated if all the data are not available for the surface resistance calculations
 
# Error message generated if wind data are below zero plane displacement height.
 
# All error messages now written to ‘Problem.txt’ rather than embedded in an ErrorFile. Note some errors will be written and the program will continue others will stop the program.
 
# Default variables removed (see below). Model will stop if any data are problematic. File should be checked to ensure that reasonable data are being used. If an error occurs when there should not be one let us know as it may mean we have made the limits too restrictive.
 
Contents no longer used File
 
defaultFcld=0.1
 
defaultPres=1013
 
defaultRH=50
 
defaultT=10
 
defaultU=3 RunControl.nml
 
* Just delete lines from file
 
* Values you had were likely different from these example value shown here
 
 
===New in SUEWS Version 2012a=== <!--T:307-->
 
# Improved error messages when an error is encountered. Error message will generally be written to the screen and to the file ‘problems.txt’
 
# Format of all input files have changed.
 
# New excel spreadsheet and R programme to help prepare required data files. (Not required)
 
# Format of coef flux (OHM) input files have changed.
 
#* This allows for clearer identification for users of the coefficients that are actually to be used
 
#* This requires an additional file with coefficients. These do not need to be adjusted but new coefficients can be added. We would appreciate receiving additional coefficients so they can be included in future releases – Please email Sue.
 
# Storage heat flux (OHM) coefficients can be changed by
 
#* time of year (summer, winter)
 
#* surface wetness state
 
# New files are written: DailyState.txt
 
#* Provides the status of variables that are updated on a daily or basis or a snapshot at the end of each day.
 
# Surface Types
 
#* Clarification of surface types has been made. See GIS and OHM related files
 
===New in SUEWS Version2011b===
 
# Storage heat flux (ΔQs) and anthropogenic heat flux (QF) can be set to be 0 W m<sup>-2</sup>
 
# Calculation of hydraulic conductivity in soil has been improved and  HydraulicConduct  in SUEWSInput.nml is replaced with name SatHydraulicConduct
 
# Following removed from HeaderInput.nml
 
#* HydraulicConduct
 
#* GrassFractionIrrigated
 
#* PavedFractionIrrigated
 
#* TreeFractionIrrigated
 
The lower three are now determined from the water use behaviour used in SUEWS
 
#Following added to HeaderInput.nml
 
#* SatHydraulicConduct
 
#* defaultQf
 
#* defaultQs
 
# If ΔQs and QF are not calculated in the model but are given as an input, the missing data is replaced with the default values.
 
# Added to SAHP input file
 
#* AHDIUPRF – diurnal profile used if AnthropHeatChoice = 1
 
V2012a this became obsolete OHM file (SSss_YYYY.ohm)
 
 
==Differences between SUEWS, LUMPS and FRAISE== <!--T:312-->
 
 
<!--T:313-->
 
The largest difference between LUMPS and SUEWS is that the latter simulates the urban water balance in detail while LUMPS takes a simpler approach for the sensible and latent heat fluxes and the water balance (“water bucket”). The calculation of evaporation/latent heat in SUEWS is more biophysically based. Due to its simplicity, LUMPS requires less parameters in order to run. SUEWS gives turbulent heat fluxes calculated with both models as an output.  '''The model can run LUMPS alone without running SUEWS (Table 4.1 – SuewsStatus).'''
 
 
Similarities and differences between LUMPS and SUEWS.
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!
 
!LUMPS
 
!SUEWS
 
|-
 
|Net all-wave radiation (Q*)|| Input or NARP|| Input or NARP
 
|-
 
|Storage heat flux (ΔQS)|| Input or from OHM|| Input or from OHM
 
|-
 
|Anthropogenic heat flux (QF) ||Input or calculated ||Input or calculated
 
|-
 
|Latent heat (QE)||DeBruin and Holtslag (1982)
 
|Penman-Monteith equation2
 
|-
 
|Sensible heat flux (QH)  ||DeBruin and Holtslag (1982)
 
|Residual from available energy minus QE
 
|-
 
|Water balance ||No water balance included ||Running water balance of canopy and water balance of soil
 
|-
 
|Soil moisture|| Not considered ||Modelled
 
|-
 
|Surface wetness ||Simple water bucket model ||Running water balance
 
|-
 
|Irrigation ||Only fraction of surface area that is irrigated ||Input or calculated with a simple model
 
|-
 
|Surface cover ||buildings, paved, vegetation|| buildings, paved, coniferous and deciduous trees/shrubs, irrigated and unirrigated grass
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
===FRAISE Flux Ratio – Active Index Surface Exchange=== <!--T:314-->
 
 
<!--T:315-->
 
FRAISE provides an estimate of mean midday (±3 h around solar noon) energy partitioning from information on the surface characteristics and estimates of the mean midday incoming radiative energy and anthropogenic heat release. Please refer to Loridan and Grimmond (2012)<ref name="LG2012"> Loridan T and Grimmond CSB (2012) Characterization of energy flux partitioning in urban environments: links with surface seasonal properties. J. of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 51,219-241 doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-11-038.1</ref>  for further details.
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
! Topic
 
! FRAISE
 
! LUMPS
 
! SUEWS
 
|-
 
 
<!--T:316-->
 
|'''Complexity'''
 
| Simplest: FRAISE
 
|
 
| More complex: SUEWS
 
|-
 
|'''Software provided:'''
 
|R code
 
|Windows exe (written in Fortran)
 
|Windows exe (written in Fortran) - other versions available
 
|-
 
| Applicable period:
 
| Midday (within 3 h of solar noon)
 
| hourly
 
| 5 min-hourly-annual
 
|-
 
|Unique features:
 
| calculates active surface – and fluxes
 
| radiation and energy balances
 
| radiation, energy and water balance (includes LUMPS)
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
==References== <!--T:318-->
 
<references />
 
</translate>
 

Revision as of 12:56, 3 August 2018